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WAKE FOREST UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
F265.J5G59 1984X EWFF 



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WAKE FOREST UNIVERSITY 
THE Z. SMITH REYNOLDS LIBRARY 






CALL NO. 
F265 

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G59 

1984x 






FROM THE 
WAKE FOREST COLLECTION 



^^t x© be circulated 



THE GREENSBORO JEWISH COMMUNITY: 
KEEPING THE MEMORIES UNDER GLASS 

by 
Karen R . Goddy 

A thesis submitted to the Graduate Faculty of 

WAKE FOREST UNIVERSITY 

in partial fulfillment of the requirements 

for the degree of 

MASTER OF ARTS 

in the Department of History 

May, 19 84 
Winston-Salem, North Carolina 




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Examining Committee 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
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http://archive.org/details/greensborojewish1984godd 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

ABSTRACT iii 

INTRODUCTION 1 

I THE BEGINNINGS 1900-1925 16 

II SETTING THE PACE IN GREENSBORO 1925-1950 36 

III MOVING TOWARDS THEIR OWN 1950-1980 53 

IV A FUTURE FOR THE PAST 77 

APPENDICES 93 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 102 

VITA 107 



WAJCf PORiST ygWSiHIll 



Goddy, Karen R . 

THE GREENSBORO JEWISH COMMUNITY: 
KEEPING THE MEMORIES UNDER GLASS 
Thesis under the direction of J. Edwin Hendricks, Ph.D., 
Professor of History. 

The Greensboro, North Carolina Jewish community has a 
unique history. Primarily a twentieth century community, 
the Jewish citizens experienced a freedom of movement 
throughout Greensboro in civic, business, and community 
affairs. Anti-Semitism was not visible. The first three 
chapters of the thesis pertain to the history and 
contributions of the Greensboro Jewish community from 1900 
to 1980. 

The first twenty-five years of the century were spent 
building up the community and Greensboro. Inside the Jewish 
community a congregation was formed and a temple was built. 
The Cone and Sternberger families were leaders in the Jewish 
community of Greensboro as well as in the city at large. 
Jewish involvement in city activities became even more 
frequent after 1930 and by 1949 Greensboro had its first and 
only Jewish mayor. The Greensboro Jewish community has made 
contributions to the city as well as to their own community 
since the late 1890's and early 1900's. Civic and 
philanthropic efforts continued through the 1970's although 
participation in civic activities has lessened in the last 
ten to fifteen years. The change in the social pattern of 



the Greensboro Jewish community has contributed to their 
withdrawal from civic affairs. 

Chapter four proposes what should be done to 

establish a Jewish history museum and what steps should be 

taken to preserve photographs and documents in the 
possession of the Temple Emanuel archives in Greensboro. 

The Greensboro Jewish community has played a significant 

role in Greensboro history and should be reminded of that 

history through the establishment of a Greensboro Jewish 
history museum. 



INTRODUCTION 



An author who preferred to remain anonymous commented 
on the efforts of Jews to gain repectability among the 
Southern non-Jewish majority and self respect that would 
overcome being ignored by the majority. The author said, 
"We should only write about the good things and the 
important people whom we can be proud about." Louis 
Schmier, a history professor at Valdosta State College and 
one of the founders of the Southern Jewish Historical 
Society, questioned the author about his unethical answer. 

The author replied, "Better we should be pictured with halos 

2 
and wings than with horns and pitchforks." This thesis 

presents the Greensboro Jewish community with halos and 

wings only because it is a presentation of the community's 

history and its contributions to Greensboro. 

In the beginning of the twentieth century the Jews in 

Greensboro came together to form a community, with a temple 

as its nucleus. The first twenty-five years were spent 

building up the community and Greensboro. During this time 

period two families, Cone and Stern berger, stood out in the 

city and in the Jewish community. The families were very 

generous and gave of themselves to the community and the 



Louis Schmier, ed . , Reflections of Southern Jewry 
(Macon: Mercer University Press, 1982), p. 164. 

2 Ibid. 



city. Many Jews in the community were very active but did 
not receive recognition until after 1930. 

In less than two decades the United States, including 
Greensboro, suffered from the Depression and entered World 
War II. It was during this time that the Jewish community 
seemed to gain the recognition many had deserved. The 
community's philanthropic and civic efforts were a source of 
pride to the entire city. 

The Greensboro Jewish community retained its self 
respect and the respect of the city during the fifties and 
sixties. As the 1970's approached, the Jewish community 
appeared to participate less in civic affairs, however 
philanthropic projects benefitting the city were still in 
operation. The community withdrew from activities in the 
city but continued to nurse its own needs. There have been 
those Jewish citizens who have remained active in city 
affairs but the numbers have been small. Those few Jewish 
citizens have worked to maintain the close relationship 
between the Jewish community and Greensboro. Newer members 
of the Jewish community have not been aware of the good 
rapport between the city and the community. Enlightening 
the Greensboro Jewish community about its unique history is 
vital to the preservation of the relationship between 
Greensboro and the community. 

The Jewish community's relationship with Greensboro 
has always been good. In order for the kinship to remain 



solid, the history and contributions of the Greensboro 
Jewish community must be presented to the current members of 
the community. A museum would be a vehicle by which to 
reach the entire Jewish community. Curiousity would entice 
citizens to come to the exhibit area, and an interesting 
presentation of history would keep them coming back. The 
need for a specialized museum exists within the Greensboro 
Jewish community. Jewish citizens have played a significant 
role in Greensboro history and have had much to be proud of: 
its participation in government, education, and civic 
affairs, in addition to successful businesses and 
philanthropic endeavors. Chapter IV discusses the need for 
a museum to reach and educate the Greensboro Jewish 
community, outlines a proposal of what should be done, and 
describes possible exhibits. 

Specialized and small local museums are growing in 
numbers across the United States. Memberships in history 
organizations, i.e. The National Trust for Historic 
Preservation, The American Association of Museums, and The 
American Association of State and Local History, have grown 
also. Communities across the country are finding a need for 
museums that specialize in a certain area or a specific 
subject. Greensboro has a historical museum but there is 
not a permanent exhibit devoted to the Jewish community. A 
separate museum, dedicated to and operated by the Jewish 
community, is a necessity to Greensboro and its Jewish 



k 

citizens. St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Winston-Salem, 
North Carolina has an exhibit area called the Tower Room, 
which has been successful. There is no reason why the 
Greensboro Jewish community cannot do the same. A 
Greensboro Jewish community museum would remind the 
community of its rich history and contributions to the city. 
However, to understand and appreciate the history and 
contributions of the Greensboro Jewish community, one must 
know why, when, and how Jews came to the United States, to 
the South, and to Greensboro. 

In 70 C.E. the destruction of the Second Temple in 
Jerusalem marked the beginning of the Diaspora, the greatest 
dispersion of a single group of people in history. 
Thereafter Jews were found throughout the world, although 
many were concentrated in Europe and the warmer Iberian 
Peninsula. For similar reasons the Ashkenazic (European) 
and the Sephardic (Iberian Peninsula) Jews are important. 
Many of them and/or their descendants were to make their way 
to Amer ica . 

The rise of Christianity brought "the emergence of 
Europe's Christian dynasties between the fourth and 
fifteenth centuries that destroyed the equality of Jewish 
status and the economic and political basis of Jewish 
security." The Ashkenazic Jews had lived with the 



Howard Morley Sachar, The Course of Modern Jewish 
History , (New York: Dell Publishing Company, Inc., 1977), 
p. 26. 



indeterminate status of non-European for centuries. They 
were considered Jews with no national origin. Not until the 
middle to latter eighteenth century did changes begin to 
take place . 

Jews, being excluded from the rest of society, 
created their own towns or ghettoes. Ghettoes were located 
outside a town or in a section of a city. Jews were 
restricted, forbidden to leave the ghetto except for 
business. In the evenings, and on Sundays and Holidays, the 
gates to the ghetto were locked so that the Jews could not 
harm the gentiles in the towns and villages. Inside the 
ghetto, life did not stop. The people provided themselves 

with educational, religious, administrative, social, 

4 
medical, and penal services. It must be noted that 

ghettoes were not imposed until the sixteenth century. Pope 

Paul IV created the first official ghetto in 1555. An area 

on the left bank of the Tiber River was set aside for the 

Jews of Rome. The area was near a gun factory (Giotto), 

hence the ghetto derived its name. For a time eastern 

European Jews appeared to have a better life than those in 

Western Europe, yet with the destruction of the Kingdom of 

Poland, in the eighteenth century, old restrictions of the 

early Middle Ages were revived. The Pale of Settlement, 



Ibid. 



Ibid., p. 30 



established by Catherine the Great in 1794, was a large area 
designated for the settlement of Jews. However Jews were 
not allowed outside the Pale border, again burdening an 
entire people intellectually, economically, and politically. 
The Pale of Settlement was in reality a ghetto in which Jews 
were subjected to pogroms and other horrors. As things were 
getting worse in the East, there were indications in the 
West that better times were ahead. By the nineteenth 
century the ghetto was done away with but Jews continued to 
settle together. 

While Ashkenazic Jews continued to suffer in Europe, 
Sephardic Jews had already made their move. Under Moorish 
rule in Spain, Jews had been allowed to flourish and had 
made great contributions in science, culture, and commerce. 
This was indeed the Golden Age. But things began to 
deteriorate as the Moors were slowly forced out of Spain. 
When the Moors were completely out of Spain, Jewish freedom 
went with them. 

In January of 1492 with the total removal of Moors 
from Spain, many Jews to save themselves converted to 
Christianity. Those Jews were called Marranos, a term 
meaning Damned or Swine. Jews and Marranos alike found 
conditions oppressive. The expulsion of Jews from Spain in 



Henry L. Feingold, Zion in Amer ica , (Boston: Twayne 
Publishers, Inc., 1974), p. 323. 



7 
August of 1492, marked the beginning of a long journey which 
led many to America. 

Jews and Marranos fled to North Africa, Palestine, 
Genoa, etc., while many went to the Netherlands. Some of 
these became Dutch colonists in the Carribean and in South 
America. Jews had helped settle a colony in Recife, Brazil. 
In January 1654 the Portugese overthrew the colony and again 
the Jews fled. In September of 1654 a bark boat named the 
"St. Charles" anchored in the New Amsterdam harbor; aboard 
were twenty-three Jewish passengers from the once Dutch 
colony of Recife. Hence the first record of Jews in North 
America . 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Jews 
settled in port cities such as Newport, New York, Baltimore, 
Charleston, and Philadelphia. For centuries the Jews had 
been restricted from owning land or working the land. In 
the colonies Jews found ways to make their new home 
commercially viable. Jewish colonists were involved in the 
buying and selling of tobacco, coffee, tea, sugar, vanilla, 
indigo, wine making, castile soap, diamonds, and the 
spermaceti industry which replaced expensive tallow 
candles . 



Encyclopedia Britannica , 1961 ed., s.v. 

"Spermaceti." Spermaceti is a wax that separates from the 
oil of the Sperm Whale, used in making candles it proved to 
be a cheaper means in candlemaking . 



The pattern of settlement among Jews in the United 
States changed somewhat when German-speaking Jews began to 
come to America in the early 1800's. Not only did their 
migration extend westward but some went south. Many of 
these Jews settled and made lives for themselves in small 
towns and villages throughout the country. They were in 
various trades and occupations. But among all the working 
people during this time, the peddler stood out as an asset 
to rural households. 

Although there were peddlers before the Civil War, 
they became more numerous after 1870. Businesses in urban 
areas began to turn to rural areas for sales. These 
businesses hired men to sell their war es--peddler s , who left 
their homes and families for a week or more at a time. 
Baltimore Bargain House was one outfit that hired men to 

Q 

peddle their wares. The business assigned each peddler a 
separate county in a state as to not cause competition among 
their own representatives. Fannie Susman Love's father was 

one such peddler who serviced Randolph County, North 

9 
Carolina before eventually settling in Greensboro. It was 

because of these traveling salesmen with just a pack on 

their back that the Jewish populations in small towns and 



Mrs. Fannie Susman Love, interview at her home 
Greensboro, North Carolina, 6 January 1984. 

9 Ibid. 



villages grew. Many peddlers settled in the small towns and 
soon Jews could be found in many rural areas too. The 
nation was growing but after the Civil War the population in 
the South was declining. 

The number of people migrating north and west was 
greater than the number of immigrants settling in the South. 
Many southern planters, land speculators, industrialists, 
and state governments pushed to lure immigration. 
Pamphlets were published but there was little success in 
bringing immigrants into the South. One may question 
whether immigrants settled elsewhere because of the lack of 
industry in the South, because of their port of entry into 
the United States, or because of racial and religious 
animosities in the South. 

Anti-Semitism in the South was not as bad as was 
portrayed by many Northerners. During the Colonial period 
there were some restrictions placed on Jews throughout the 
colonies, although the greatest freedoms were felt in the 
South. (In 1800 the largest Jewish population was found in 
Charleston, South Carolina. ) American Jewish life 
centered in the South until the Civil War. Although Jews 
were excluded politically and in other ways in many of the 



Rowland T. Berthoff, "Southern Attitudes towards 
Immigration, 1865-1914." Journal of Southern History 17 
(August 1951): 328. 



1 J 



Schmier, Reflections of Southern Jewry , p. 160. 



10 
southern colonies and states, Jews first received political 
equality in Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia. In 1801 
the first Jewish governor was David Emanuel of Georgia. 

David Yulee of Florida became the first Jewish United States 

1 2 
senator and Florida's first senator in 1845. 

Judah P. Benjamin of Louisiana was probably the most 
famous Jew in American history prior to the twentieth 
century. Benjamin sat in the United States Senate from 
1852-1861. He was offered a seat on the United States 
Supreme Court but declined in order to remain in the Senate. 
As the national crises grew, Jews made their presence felt, 
were a part of southern society, and contributed to the 
rising South. After the South seceded from the Union, 
Benjamin served the Confederacy first as attorney general 
and then as secretary of war. Jewish citizens in the South 
stood by their neighbors and went to war for the Confederate 
cause. They had as much to lose as any other Southerner. 

After the Civil War, southern Jews were there to help 
pick up the pieces, to begin again, and to contribute to 
southern recovery. Words spoken harshly about Jews in the 
South during this period usually referred to northern 



12 

Ibid., pp. 160-161; Leon Huhner, "David L. Yulee, 

Florida's First Senator," in Jews in the South , eds. Leonard 

Dinnerstein and Mary Dale Palson (Baton Rouge: Louisana 

State University Press, 1973), pp. 61-65; Cyclopedia of 

Georgia , reprinted ed. (1972), s.v. "Emanual, David." 



11 

Jews who began to appear in the South during Reconstruction. 
Not until the 1890's and the rise of nativism did southern 
Jews begin to encounter an t i-semi ti sm . 

In the late nineteenth century nativism affected the 
North as well as the South. Much of the nativist attitude 
came with the new immigration, or the immigration of 
southern and eastern European peoples. These immigrants did 
not assimilate as quickly as earlier immigrants, and many 
held on to their native ideas, language, and customs. 

In the twentieth century the influx of immigrants and 
the competition between Americans and immigrants for 
employment helped to spread anti-Semitism socially through 

restrictive clubs, resorts, private schools, college 

13 
fraternities, and college faculties. Even some areas of 

employment were excluding Jews. "Southern attitudes toward 

them had been an amalgram of affection, tolerance, 

curiousity, suspicison, and rejection." Nevertheless, 

southern Jews carried on their lives as normally as 

possible, but early in the twentieth century the Leo Frank 

lynching in Atlanta brought terror to many Jews in the 

South . 



13 

John Higham, Strangers in the Land , (New Brunswick: 

Rutgers University Press, 1955), pp. 160-161. 

14 

Leonard Dinnerstein, The Leo Frank Case , (New York: 

Columbia University Press, 1968), p. 65. 



12 
Leo Frank was a northern Jew who had come to Atlanta 
to run a pencil factory. Frank was accused, and found 
guilty of murdering 13 year old Mary Phagan, an employee of 
the factory. Every request for a retrial was denied, even 
at the United States Supreme Court level. Sentenced to 
death by hanging, Frank's sentence was commuted. August 16, 
1915 Frank was kidnapped and hung by a group of citizens who 
claimed they were carrying out justice. The Atlanta Jewish 
Federation had been trying for years to gain justice for 
Frank. CBS Evening News reported on December 2 2, 1983 that 
the Feder at ions ' s most recent efforts for a posthumous 
pardon had been denied. 

The Frank lynching spotlighted a Southern penchant 
for seeking justice outside the legal system and emphasized 
that even in the South anti-Semitism could take violent form 
on occasion. For a time at least southern Jews withdrew a 
bit more in their own communities and viewed their gentile 
associates with a bit more suspicion. In Greensboro, 
activities were normal. The Leo Frank lynching was news 
only read in the papers. The degree of fear in Greensboro 
varied. Mr. Arnold Schiffman, Sr. remembered the incident 
but had no fears or thoughts that it could happen in 
Greensboro. ' Mrs. Bea Weill also felt no threat, however 



Mr. Arnold Schiffman, Sr., Interview at Greensboro 
Civic Club, Greensboro, North Carolina, 6 January 1984. 



13 
Mrs. Fannie Love said she remembered how terrible everyone 

thought it was but that she "was not old enough to really 

1 6 
think what could have happened." While admitting she was 

too young to fear the Leo Frank incident, Mrs. Love knew her 

parents were frightened. Reaction to the Frank case could 

have varied out of personal experience. Those less fearful 

tended to be those who had grown up with little or no 

anti-Semitic attacks while others and newer members of the 

Greensboro Jewish community had escaped those attacks by 

immigrating to America. 

Prior to the twentieth century, Greensboro was making 

a name for itself. Though Greensboro's founding dated back 

to 1808, the city and its history reached further back into 

American history. In 1807 an act of the state legislature 

gave Guilford County authority to move the county seat from 

Martinsville (near the present day town of Guilford) to the 

center of Guilford County. On March 12, 1808 the deed was 

received and a tract of land for the county seat was divided 

into 44 lots and sold at public auction. The county seat 

was named in honor of general Nathaniel Greene, 

Revolutionary War General who in 1781 had defended Guilford 



Love, 6 January 1984; Mrs. Bea Weill, interview at 
her home, Greensboro, North Carolina, 7 January 1984. 

McDaniel Lewis, Basic Documents Relating to the 
Founding of Greensboro, North Carolina (Greensboro: n.p., 
1958) . 



14 
Courthouse against Cornwallis. All the county records were 
moved to Greensbor ough and court was held for the first time 
May 18, 1809. 18 

Moving the county seat to Greensboro was enough to 
attract people to settle there. The expansion of Greensboro 
brought change in government. Between 1808 and 1824 six men 
were named as commissioners of police and 13 separate laws 

relating to the government of the municipality were passed 

19 
by the state legislature. By 1824 Greensboro was 

self-governing and its citizens elected their own 

commissioners. As Greensboro grew it needed to expand its 

boundaries. In 1837 a new charter from the state extended 

20 
Greensboro's town limits by one square mile. Greensboro 

was growing in size and progressing as a city. 

Henry Humphry opened a cotton factory in Greensboro 

during the 1830' s and by the late 1840's there were chair 

and furniture factories, a carriage factory, a wool and fur 

hat maker, a cigar, snuff, and plug tobacco maker, and other 

businesses. Lunsford Richardson, a pharmacist, developed an 

ointment to help ease cold symptoms. The product was named 



1 Q 

The original spelling of Greensboro was soon 
abandoned . 

19 

Ethel Stephens Arnett, Greensboro, North Carolina: 

The County Seat of Guilford (Chapel Hill: University of 

North Carolina Press, 1955), pp. 24-25. 



20 



Ibid., pp. 30-31 



15 
Vicks. Later Richardson established what has become the 
Vicks Chemical Company. The manufacturers of Greensboro may 
not have been as successful if it had not been for the 
railroad which passed through Greensboro. 

Legislation between 1846 and 1848 helped to boost 
Greensboro and its merchants. The state legislature decided 
the North Carolina Railroad running from Charlotte to 
Goldsboro would have to run through Orange, Alamance, and 
Guilford counties, thus bringing more people into Guilford 

County and Greensboro, and allowing business to reach 

21 
outside the county boundaries at a faster pace. 

With the convenience of the railroad and town growth, 
Greensboro replaced its intendent of police with a mayor, 
and in 1870 shed the name town and blossomed into a city. 
More manufacturers were establishing themselves in 
Greensboro and by the turn of the century the city compared 
itself to a northern industrial city. 

The Greensboro Jewish community helped to make a 
southern industrial city of Greensboro. The community began 
small but continued to grow and affect Greensboro. A museum 
can gather and exhibit the Jewish history of Greensboro in a 
manner that brings out the pride and respect the city and 
the Jewish community have for each other. 



21 



Arnett, pp. 146-147 



CHAPTER I 
THE BEGINNINGS 
1900-1925 

The history of the Jewish community in Greensboro, 
North Carolina is important. The community's growth and 
interaction with the rest of Greensboro is important not 
only in North Carolina history but throughout the South as 
well. This chapter concentrates on the first quarter of the 
Twentieth century, 1900-1925. 

While prior to this century a few Jews had made their 
homes in Greensboro, the number was never enough to gain 
recognition. There were a few Jews such as Ephraim R. 
Fishblate and Morris Pretzfelder in Greensboro before 1880. 
Pretzfelder operated a retail business and was buried in the 
Hebrew Cemetery in 1943. Fishblate had a clothing store in 
Greensboro. He brought a rabbi to town to officiate at his 
daughter's wedding in 1892 and again in 1897 for his wife's 
funeral. There is little or no documentation of other Jews 
who settled prior to 1894 in Greensboro. 



These two men are mentioned in the Greensboro Daily 
Patriot prior to 1892. There are scattered articles from 
December 1876 to September 1891 and in the Temple Emanuel 
75th Anniversary Booklet (Greensboro, North Carolina: 
Temple Emanuel, 1982). The history for the Anniversary 
booklet was researched and written by Dr. Donald Cone, Mr. 
Henry I. Isaacson, Mr. Joseph Shallant, Mr. William A. 
Stern, and Mrs. Bea Weill. 



16 



17 
Greensboro demonstrated a willingness to accept Jews 

as a part of the community. Some attribute the acceptance 

9 
to Greensboro's Quaker and Presbyterian beginnings. Once 

the city's open attitude was evident many Jewish families 

settled in Greensboro. Simon Schiffman came to Greensboro 

by accident in 1892. He was on his way to Asheville, and 

while switching trains in Greensboro saw a jewelry store 

going out of business. Schiffman immediately began 

3 
procedures to acquire the store. The Cone Family, in 1894, 

selected Greensboro as the site of their textile mills 

because, "Winston-Salem and Charlotte gave the Cone Brothers 

a feeling of hostility caused by anti-Semitism." The Cone 

Family was a great influence on Greensboro. Many elders in 



the community felt the Cones were the reason for Jewish 
acceptance in Greensboro during this century. 



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Quakers, Scotch-Irish (or Ulster-Scots. Their 
s affiliation is Presbyterian), and Germans made 
ttlements in Guilford County. The Quakers and the 
rish openly welcomed and accepted other groups, 
s and otherwise. Religiously, both groups had been 
d to harassment in England and Ireland respectively. 

Arnold Schiffman, Sr., interview at the Greensboro 
ub, Greensboro, North Carolina, 6 January 1984. 

Herbert S. Falk, Jr., "Welcoming Remarks of Herbert 
Jr., 75th Anniversary Banquet of Temple Emanuel," 
ro, N.C., 25 April 1982. 

Schiffman, 6 January 1984; Mrs. Bea Weill, interview 
ome, Greensboro, North Carolina, 7 January 1984; 
nie Love, interview at her home, Greensboro, North 
, 6 January 1 984 . 



Contributions by members of the Cone family to the Jewish 

community and to Greensboro are found throughout the thesis. 

In North Carolina as elsewhere in the United States 

anti-Semitism was demonstrated verbally, by exclusion from 

clubs or organizations, and even in legal statutes. The 

North Carolina State Constitution of 1776 discriminated 

against Jews, Roman Catholics, Unitarians, and atheists. 

Section 32 of the constitution read, 

That no person who shall deny the being 
of God, or the truth of the Protestant religion, 
or the divine authority of either the Old or New 
Testaments, or who shall hold religious 
principles incompatible with the freedom and 
safety of the State, shall be capable of holding 
any office, or place of trust or profit, in the 
civil department, within this State. 

Although the constitution was rewritten in 1868 to read, 

"the following classes of persons shall be disqualified for 

office: First, all persons who shall deny the being of 

Almighty God: . . . .", few Jews in North Carolina held 

public office until the 1 9 3 ' s . This was true in 

Greensboro, but Jews participated in the city government 

between 1900 and 1925. Their participation came when they 

were given a chance, whether it was an elected or an 

appointed position, as demonstrated later in the chapter. 



John L. Chiney, Jr., ed., North Carolina Government 
1585-1974 A Narrative and Statistical History (Winston- 
Salem, N.C.: Hunter Publishing Co., 1975), p. 814. 



Ibid. , 



861 



19 
Jews were accepted in Greensboro more readily than in 
other areas of North Carolina, but in the teaching field 
Jews had trouble getting jobs. Jewish teachers were 
excluded from teaching in the public schools in North 
Carolina even after 1925. Sarah Franklin Brisker, Jewish 
and raised in Greensboro, left because she could not be 
placed in the teaching field due to her religion. A letter 
from the State Supervisor of the Department of Public 
Instruction read, "In a city system, I feel that your 
religion would not make any difference but as you know, none 
of our cities are quite large enough to make this possible. 

Q 

." This incident was an exception in the case of 
anti-Semitism in Greensboro. The state adhered to the 
unwritten rule of discriminating against Jews. 

The Greensboro Jewish community began to take shape 
around 1900. Jews started to settle in Greensboro because 
of the city's non-prejudiced attitude. Greensboro, as many 
other cities across the South, ". . . realized the need for 
a diversified economy, and they welcomed the special talents 
and skills attributed to the Jews." These Jews entered 
industry, retail, real estate, insurance, scrap, and other 



Sarah Franklin Brisker, Letter to Rabbi Arnold Task, 
17 August 1978. 

9 
Leonard Dinnerstein and Mary Dale Palsson, eds. , 

Jews in the South (Baton Rouge: Louisana State University 

Press, 1973), p. 4. 



20 
occupations. A major Jewish concern, in Greensboro and in 
other parts of the country, was assimilation. Jews made 
every effort to adapt to the American culture and adopt it 
as their own. The Jewish community in Greensboro was 
growing in size and gaining the respect of the rest of the 
city. 

In 1907 the first formal services for Rosh Hashana 
and Yom Kippur, the High Holy Days in Judaism, were held. 
Mr. and Mrs. Emmanuel Sternberger arranged the services for 
six Jewish women attending the North Carolina College for 
Women (which would later become the University of North 
Carolina at Greensboro). Less than six months after the 
High Holy Day services, the synagogue was formed and the 
first synagogue trustees' meeting took place. At the first 
meeting, February 8, 1908, the organization called itself 
The Reformed Hebrew Congregation. Many of the men present 
at the meeting became officers or trustees of the 
congregation. These men, Emanuel Sternberger, Isaac 



Assimilation and assimilate are used in the context 
of immigrant assimilation, becoming absorbed into cultural 
traditions new to the immigrant. 

The Reformed Hebrew Congregation Executive Board 
meeting minutes 8 February 1908. For information on Reform 
Judaism there are several good works: W. Gunther Plant, The 
Rise of Reform Judaism , (New York: The World Union for 
Progressive Judaism, LTD., 1963); and David Philipson, The 
Reform Movement in Judaism , (New York: The Macmillan Co., 
1931). Note the correct term is Reform not Reformed. There 
is no explanation for the wording Reformed. See Appendix 
III for list of Temple Emanuel Past Presidents. 



:> i 

Isaacson, Jake Goldstein, Max E. Block, Herman Sternberger, 
Augustus Schiffman, Simon Schiffman, David P. Stein, and G. 
Mendelsohn, were the first leaders of the congregation. The 
Jewish community looked to these men for leadership and 
guidance in the synagogue as well as in the community at 
large . 

The purchase of the temple caused things to happen. 

The temple was located on Lee Street and had previously been 

1 2 
a Friends Church. The Reformed Hebrew Congregation, 

because of the small number of Jews in Greensboro, invited 

the Orthodox Jews in the community to share the newly 

acquired building. The congregation raised the twenty-five 

hundred dollars needed to purchase the property. After the 

merger of the Reform and Orthodox Jews in Greensboro, the 

congregation appears to have gone through an identity 

crisis. 

The temple changed its name several times between 

1909 and 1915. In 1909, the Reformed Hebrew Congregation 

renamed itself The Reformed Hebrew Synagogue, Inc. followed 

13 
a year later by The Greensboro Hebrew Congregation. The 

temple was first referred to as Temple Emanuel in the 



12 

Reformed Hebrew Congregation Executive Board 

meeting minutes 8 February 1908-9 April 1909 mentioned the 

discussion and purchase of the Lee Street property. Also 

the Deed of Purchase, 2 3 December 1909. Deed book 450, pp. 

144-45. 



13 

Reformed Hebrew Synagogue Executive 

minutes 9 April 1909 and 30 January 1910. 



Board meeting 



22 
executive board meeting minutes, April 4 , 1915. From April 
of 1915 through April of 1925, when the temple minutes end, 
the temple was referred to as Temple Emanuel although the 
members continued to call themselves the Greensboro Hebrew 
Congregation. Temple Emanuel was the name used during the 
temple dedication in 1925, however the congregation did not 
make the name official until 1949 when the Orthodox and 
Conservative Jews of Greensboro formed Beth David Synagogue. 
There are several possibilities why the temple changed its 
name so many times. 

The identity crisis could have been due to the fact 
that although both Reform and Orthodox Jews were sharing the 

building, Reform Jews call their house of worship a temple 

14 
and Orthodox Jews call it a synagogue. Another 



K„ T , 
The 


issue goes b. 


ack to Germany at 


the beg 


innin 


g of 


Reform movement. From traditional point of 


view th 


e temple 


in Jerusalem 


was to be the 


only place to be 


called 


a ten 


.pie. 


The question 


of whether or 


not Jews living 


outside 


the 


land 


of Israel wer 


e exiled was 


one of questions 


raised b 


y re 


form 


Judai sm . And 


one of the 


very important 


points 


is 


that 


wherever Jews 


live that's 


their home, wherever they 


wor shi p 


that's their 


Temple. So that's the reason 


for the 


choice of 


the word temp 


le among Reform Congregations. 


There 


are 


some 


Conservative 


Congregations 


that do use the 


word ten 


pie ; 


for 


example Charlotte's (N.C.) 


Temple Israel is 


a Conservative 


Congregation . 


Rodo Sho lorn 


Temple in Newport News, 


Va. 


and 


Temple Beth 


El [and] T 


emple Israel 


these 


are 


all 


Conservative 


Congrega t i ons 


in Norfolk. It 


becomes 


a matter 


of local usuage as far 


as the title, 


the name. 


In 


Greensboro th 


e words Tempi 


e and Synagogue 


have 


been 


for 


local usage 


and easy 


identification 


of 


the 


two 


institutions. 


" Rabbi Task 


, in ter v iew at 


Temple 


Emanuel , 


Greensboro, N 


orth Carolina 


, 10 January 1984 









23 
speculation is the disassociation of earlier Jewish 
immigrants from later immigrants arriving from eastern 
Europe. German Jews assimi 1 iated quickly into American 
society. Many had been in the United States since the 
middle of the nineteenth century and had already established 
temples with Hebrew names or the word Jewish in their 
titles. With the influx of Eastern European Jews after 1900 
and their slow assimilation, more established Jews in the 
United States did not want to be associated with the 
arriving immigrants. This disassociation not only stemmed 
from embarrassment but also from United States nativism 
which had become increasingly popular in the 1910's and 
1920's. In an effort to assimilate and seem more American, 
congregations used the word Hebrew because it did not sound 
threatening. Titles such as B'rith Sholom and B'nai Israel 
sounded too Jewish for nativist and anti-Semitic attitudes 
in the early years of the Twentieth century. Not until the 
emigration from Eastern Europe had slowed down considerably 
(World War I helped to curb immigration to the United 
States, and the Immigration Acts of 1921 and 1924 limited 
further immigration) and the country was not feeling 
threatened, did the naming of the temples and synagogues 
resume the use of Hebrew names. 

Throughout the thirty-six years the Reform and the 
Orthodox Jews lived and worshipped together, they respected 
each others' beliefs and practices. Mrs. Bea Weill, 



24 
ninety-four years old and the oldest living member of Temple 
Emanuel, noted in an interview at the time of the temple's 
fiftieth anniversary, "the few Reform Jews who had carriages 
hitched their horses a block away so as not to offend the 
stricter brethren." 

There was a lot of activity in the Jewish community 
between 1908 and 1925. The congregation purchased land 
known as the "Gorrell Property" in 1910 for the Greensboro 
Hebrew Cemetery. The property was purchased for eight 
hundred and fifty dollars. The cemetery has only once, 
since its purchase, had to acquire more land. The largest 
investment during this seventeen year period was the 
building of the present Temple Emanuel. 

On October of 1919 the congregation decided to build 
a new temple. Before building the temple a Building Fund 
was established in December of 1919 and members were asked 
to make contributions. According to Mrs. Bea Weill everyone 



Adher 
Law f 
sabba 
Sat ur 
Liebm 
(New 
and 
Loy ol 



mee ti 
June 



Greensboro News and Record , 25 April 1982, p. 1. 
ed to by Orthodox and some Conservative Jews, Jewish 
orbids the riding (in car, on horse, etc.) on the 
th, which extends from sundown Friday to sundown 
day. Orthodox Judaism is discussed in: Charles S. 
an , Aspects of the Religious Behavior of American Jews , 
York: KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 1974), pp. 111-188; 
John A. Hardon, s.j., American Judaism , (Chicago: 
a University Press, 1971), pp. 65-100. 

Greensboro Hebrew Congregation Executive Board 
ng minutes, 30 June 1910. Also the Deed of Purchase, 7 
1910. Deed book 220, p. 344. 



16 



17 



Ibid., 30 June 1910. 



25 

planned on earning at least ten dollars a person to be 
contributed to the Building Fund. Mrs. Weill remembered 
making and selling handkerchiefs for the temple. Another 
recollection of Mrs. Weill's was that Julius Cone, in honor 
of Emanuel St er nber ger ' s fiftieth birthday, wanted to give 
fifty thousand dollars to Greensboro. Mr. Sternberger was 
grateful but requested the money go to the Temple Building 

Fund. ' The site, located "over- looking Fisher Park," was 

19 
chosen and the property purchased. Architect Hobart 

Upjohn, a leading architect of churches of the period, was 

hired to design the temple and construction was begun in 

1922. The building was completed and in use in 1924, 

although the formal dedication did not take place until the 

20 
weekend of June 5-7, 1925. 

Between 1919 and 1925 national and international 

Jewish organizations began to ask the Greensboro Jewish 

community for contributions. The correspondence from these 

Jewish organizations was an unofficial recognition of the 

established Jewish community. The Jews of Greensboro were 

very generous in regards to the donations made at the 



Li 



'Weill, 7 January 1984 



19 

Greensboro Hebrew Congregation Executive Board 

meeting minutes 12 October 1919. Also Deed of Purchase, 19 

February 1920. Deed Book 341, p. 274. 

20 

Greensboro Daily News , 5 June 1925, p. 5. 



26 

national level. They showed no resentment. Greensboro Jews 
dug deeper into their pockets to give to those less 
fortunate. In 1922, the Jewish community contributed four 
hundred dollars to the Anti-Defamation League and made 
similar donations to the United Jewish Campaign, the 
American Joint Distribution Committee, and the United 
Palestine Appeal. In 1924 a letter from Louis Marshall, 
chairman of the Emergency Committee on Jewish Refugees, 
asked for a contribution from the Greensboro Jewish 
community. The Emergency Committee on Jewish Refugees was 
trying to raise fifty thousand dollars to help "Jewish 

refugees stranded in European seaports and five thousand 

ii 21 
languishing in Cuba. The Greensboro Jewish community 

sent a contribution of seven hundred and fifty dollars, 

which was a large sum of money for a small Jewish community. 

The Jewish community gave their time, effort, and money to 

Jewish causes and also to Greensboro, which will be 

discussed later. 

The real beginnings of the industrialization and the 

urbanization of Greensboro started with the Cone Brothers, 

Moses and Ceasar, building their first textile mill, 

Proximity, in 1894. The Cones, in turn, persuaded brothers 

Emanuel and Herman Sternbereer to come to Greensboro in 1898 



21 

Letter from Emergency Committee on Jewish Refugees 

to Emanuel Sternberger, 26 October 1924. 



27 
to build a flannel factory, later to be named Revolution. 
The Sternbergers officially moved to Greensboro in 1903. 
These two families, acquainted with each other before the 
Cones settled in Greensboro, served the Jewish community, 
but more importantly, they and other Jewish families served 
the city in general. 

The textile mills owned by the Cone Family and 
operated by both the Cones and the Sternbergers gave 
employment to a large portion of the population in 

Greensboro. The mills helped to increase the population of 

22 
Greensboro between 1890 and 1910. ' "These three mills, 

Revolution, Proximity, and White Oak, will be in the center 

of a population of ten thousand people, all supported by the 

23 
mills." "In the center" was correct because the Cones 

provided a comprehensive welfare program for employees. The 

obituary of Ceasar Cone summarized his concerns accurately, 

He was deeply interested in the welfare 
and happiness of the people employed in his 
plants. He saw to it that they had comfortable 
and well arranged houses to live in, churches to 
attend, good schools for the education of their 
children, and ample opportunity for wholesome 



22 

Population census for Greensboro 1880-1910: 

1880-2,105; 1890-3,317; 1900-10,035; 1910-15,895. U.S., 

Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Eleventh 

Census of the United States, 1890: Population , 1:299; U.S., 

Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Thirteenth 

Census of the United States, 1910: Population , 1:276. 

23 James W. Albright, Greensboro 1808-1904 Facts, 



Figures, Traditions, and Riminisences (Greensboro, North 
Carolina: Jos. J. Stone & Co., 1904), p. 99 



recreation 



24 



Out of his concern Ceasar Cone did build a community, White 
Oak Village, for his employees. Houses were rented for one 
dollar a week, there were convenient commissaries and 
credit, garden patches behind every home, and two fruit 
trees in every yard. The company helped to build churches 
and schools in the village. Street cleaning and garbage 
pick up were provided along with other services such as 
professional nurses in the White Oak Mill Village, and in 
1911 the company organized the Textile Bank which was 
established principally to serve the employees of the mills. 
The mills called attention to Greensboro, not only through 
their productivity but through their advancements in 
employee welfare. The idea of mill villages was copied from 
prominent mills in England. Many mill villages in the South 
provided many of the same necessities and luxuries as did 
White Oak Mill Village. Housing, schools, and gardens were 

very popular among what villages had to offer. Improvements 

25 
made to the villages came with the success of the mill. 



Greensboro Patriot , 5 March 1917, p. 1. 



25 

Addition information on mill villages: Jennings J. 

Rhyne, Ph.D., Some Southern Cotton Mill Workers and Their 

Villages , (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina press, 

1943); William Hays Simpson, Ph.D., Life in Mill Communities 

(Clinton, S.C.: P.C. Press, 1943); Mimi Conway, Rise Gonna 

Rise: A Portrait of Southern Textile Workers , (Garden City, 

N.Y.: Anchor Press /Doubl eda y , 1979). 



29 
Greensboro grew and larger businesses settled within its 
midst. For a city on the rise, Greensboro now had to 
modernize and mature. 

The 1920's saw an end to the post-war recession, and 
business and cities were booming. The population of 
Greensboro had risen from 15,895 in 1910 to 19,861 in 1920. 
Streets were widened and paved, a new railroad station was 
built, there was the establishment of city parks and 
playgrounds, the city finally had a full time paid fire 
department, and utility lines were extended. Greensboro had 
been partly shaped by the Jewish community. Many Jews 
gained both respect and individual pleasure from their 
philanthropic endeavors and their desire to make Greensboro 
a major city in the South. The Jud eo-Chr is t ian relationship 
in Greensboro became stronger and citizens of all faiths 
joined together to help Greensboro flourish. 

In Greensboro no citizens were forgotten. Ceasar 
Cone graciously supported the North Carolina Tuberculosis 

Sanitarium and "provided a YMCA building for Blacks as well 

26 

as Whites. Mrs. Emanuel Sternberger contributed greatly 

to the L. Richardson Memorial Hospital for blacks. Her 



Estelle Hoffman, "Carolina Character 
Family," Times Outlook , April 1982, p. 8. 



The Cone 



30 
donations equipped the operating room and the X-ray 
department. Moses Cone wanted to build a modern hospital 
for Greensboro but did not live long enough to see it 
through. However in 1911, Mrs. Moses Cone created a trust 
which upon her death would make possible a hospital as a 
memorial to her husband. The Moses H. Cone Memorial 
Hospital was opened in 1953 and honored its pledge, "In 
accordance with the original plans, no patient shall be 

refused admission or discharged because of inability to 

27 
pay."" Greensboro Jews, like Jews across the United 

States, were very generous in regards to charities. The 

Jewish people were known, and still are, for opening their 

hearts and their homes in times of need. 

And so the Jews of Greensboro helped their neighbors 

and themselves at the same time. Mrs. Emanuel Sternberger 

was the founder of planned recreation in the city. Copying 

a large park and playground program in Philadelphia in the 

late 1900' s and early 1910' s, Mrs. Sternberger arranged to 

have stamps made to be sold for twenty-five cents each. The 

proceeds from the stamps went towards acquiring and 

equipping playgrounds throughout Greensboro. There was more 

leisure time with industries becoming more modernized and 

recreation became more important to citizens in Greensboro 

as it did throughout the country. 



27 



Ibid 



31 
Herman Cone was one of the men who established the 
Greensboro Camp and Playground Association in 1920. Emanuel 
Sternberger was the chairman of the original board of 
directors. The purpose of the association was to provide 
"wholesome leisure activities in which citizens of their own 
free will could participate for enjoyment, relaxation, and 

satisfaction; and thereby could condition the body, mind, 

9 ft 
and spirit for richer, fuller, happier living."*" The 

association was very successful. Their first project, Camp 

Ki-Cone, closed in 1924, but other summer camp programs were 

begun. The Jewish community was very active in planning, 

organizing, and properly running the programs. Jews served 

the city in many capacities. 

During the first quarter of the twentieth century, 

there were no Jewish judges or Jews elected to public office 

in Greensboro. This may have been a subconscious carryover 

from the earlier mentioned restrictions in the North 

Carolina State Constitution of 1776, however, until the mid 

to late 1930' s, many Jews across the country did not enter 

politics. The reason for their late entry into politics may 

have been their lack of interest in politics as a career. 

Few Jews sought employment in civic area. "Local politics . 

. seemed strange to thern, unaccustomed as they were to 



Ethel Stephens Arnett, Greensboro, North Carolina; 
'he County Seat of Guilford (Chapel Hill: University of 
forth Carolina Press, 1955), p. 367. 



32 



„29 



participation in government on any level."'" This latter 
statement is especially applicable to the Jewish immigrant 
from Eastern Europe around the turn of the century. Eastern 
European Jews had been deprived of participation in 
politics. Of those Jews who did want to participate in 
politics, most were born Americans with families that had 
been in the United States for one or two generations. In 
the South Jews anxious to enter politics had to make a name 
for themselves. While the community might accept the Jew as 
an equal, many times they would not elect a Jew to any level 
of government. However, exclusion from elected office did 
not discourage Greensboro Jews from participation in city 
affairs . 

Many Jews in Greensboro, as in the rest of the South, 
served in city government and programs but only by 
appointment to these positions. However, in Greensboro, 
Ceasar Cone, in 1905, and Herman Sternberger in 1909 and 
1910, were presidents of the Chamber of Commerce. Julius 
Cone served as a member of the City Council from 1923 until 
1940. Not only did Jews participate on this level of city 
government, but they helped to make possible the expansion 
of the Greensboro city limits. 



9 9 

Henry L. Feingold, Zion in America (Boston: 

Publishers, Inc., 1974), p. 229. 



Twayne 



33 
Exactly one hundred and forty-two years after the 

Battle of Guilford Courthouse, March 15, 1923, Greater 

30 
Greensboro became a reality. Julius Cone was on the 

committee that investigated the possibility of the 

expansion. The expansion of Greensboro caused the 

population to jump from twenty-five thousand to forty 

thousand. Greater Greensboro, after enlarging its city 

limits, drew up a new city charter. Bernard Cone served on 

the committee for the new charter. Greensboro had begun to 

take its present shape with the arrival of the Cones and the 

Sternbergers. The examples of Jewish contributions to the 

city have primarily dealt with these two families. The rest 

of the Jewish community should not be forgotten. 

Help from the Jews of Greensboro was not always 
financial. While some Jews in the city could afford to give 
monetarily to Greensboro, others gave their time, 
experience, and enthusiasm. Some Jews in the community gave 
both. 

There was an incident where Augustus Schiffman 
noticed the front door of St. Benedict's Catholic Church was 
n need of paint. Schiffman secretly painted the door 
himself because he knew the church was not financially able 



30 



Arnett , p. 3< 



34 



31 



to do so. This was an example of the thought fulness and 
concern the Jewish community had for its Christian 
neighbors . 

Greensboro gave Jews who settled there a real home 
where they would not feel threatened. A pamphlet put out by 

the Ku Klux Klan in 1922 said of the Jewish people, "He is 

32 
not interested in our institutions." By this, the Klan 

meant American institutions, free speech, free press, free 

public schools, and the separation of church and state. The 

accusation was not true, and the Jews of Greensboro proved 

this statement false. Through their activities within 

Greensboro and in their own community, the Jews worked 

towards all these institutions. Ceasar Cone built schools 

and Mrs. Emanuel Sternberger was the first woman to sit on 

the school board in Greensboro. The Jews in Greensboro 

established themselves and worked to make themselves a part 

of Greensboro. 

Those Jews who contributed to Greensboro and the 

Jewish community during the first twenty-five years of this 

century continued to do so until their deaths. In the 

decades to follow the 1920's the Jewish community grew and 

so did the efforts of the Jewish citizens to help build a 



3] 



Fa Ik, "Welcoming Remarks 



25 April, 191 



32, 



"C. Lewis Fowler, D.D., LL.D., The Ku Klux Klan, Its 
Origin, Meaning and Scopes of Operation (Atlanta: n.p., 
1922) , p. 21 . 



35 



bigger and better Greensboro. Organizations were created or 
established in Greensboro, and their popularity contributed 
to the philanthropic and civic accomplishments which have 
been a source of pride to Greensboro. 



CHAPTER II 
SETTING THE PACE IN GREENSBORO 
1925-1950 

The Greensboro Jewish community by the late 1920's 
had grown to approximately eighty-five to ninety-five 
families. The leaders of the community were still involved 
with the temple and Greensboro, and now younger members of 
the community were taking an active part as well. It is 
unknown whether Jews in Greensboro were consciously making 
an effort to keep Jud eo-Chr is t ian relations harmonious, but 
research tends to indicate that efforts were subconscious. 
The leaders in the Jewish community were also leaders in 
civic Greensboro, and their concerns were to make Greensboro 
a leading city in the South through their business and 
government leadership. 

Greensboro, like every other city in the United 
States, was affected by the Great Depression of the 1 9 3 ' s . 
Unemployment in the nation rose from three million in April 
of 1930 to twelve to fourteen million out of work by the 
first months of 1933. Women were the first of the work 
force to return to the home, followed quickly by men. 
Middle class families could no longer afford the luxury of 
domestic help. Mrs. Bea Weill spoke of having to tell the 
cook in her home that the Weills were financially unable to 
retain her services. Sales were down and many people 



Mrs. Bea Weill, interview at her home, Greensboro, 
North Carolina, 7 January 1984. 

36 



37 
began growing and canning their own fruits and vegetables. 
Families were forced to live together, creating tension 
within the home. During the depression one had to think of 
himself and his family preservation first. Within 
Greensboro, the Jewish community was no exception. 

Mrs. Bea Weill struggled "tooth and toenail" during 

2 
the depression." Surviving the economic crisis was first 

priority throughout the country. Arnold Schiffman, Sr. 

remembered times being so tough that he sold a diamond watch 

to the grocer for food to feed both his own and his parents 

3 
households. The temple was not abandoned during the 

depression but members could not afford to be as financially 

generous as they had been in the twenties. Jewish 

organizations were also hurt by the depression but they 

continued their philanthropic efforts anyway. 

The economic situations in the United States was on 

the mend towards the end of the 1930's. The onset of World 

War II also helped the United States' economic recovery. As 

prosperity was beginning to be felt by citizens across the 

country, the citizens of Greensboro were beginning to feel 

it too. Greensboro businesses were improving and the mills 

were in full operation again. The city and the Jewish 

community were gradually getting back to normal. 



Ibid . 

3 
Arnold Schiffman, Sr., interview at the Greensboro 

Civic Club, Greensboro, North Carolina, 6 January 1984. 



38 
During the Depression temple activities had been 
minimized, but by 1939-1940 they were in full swing again. 
There was an interest and a need to enlarge the temple but 
World War II put a stop to the plans. Temple Emanuel's 
membership had grown from a mere seventy-seven in 1925 to 
one hundred and sixty-six families by 1948. The project 
surfaced again in 1948, and by June 1, 1949 construction on 
a new wing was to begin. The wing, designed by architect 
and temple member Edward Loewenstein, followed the North 
Carolina colonial style while the main building underwent 
some renovation. The project was completed in six months 
time, and the dedication of the Religious School wing took 
place December 9, 1949. While the temple was a concern and 
a source of pride to its members, so was the rabbi. 

Rabbis at Temple Emanuel came and went between 1908 
and 1930. Until 1931 no rabbi had remained at Temple 
Emanuel for more than five years. A few rabbis left Temple 
Emanuel because of offers from other congregations or 
because their salaries were too low. However, some left 
because the congregation was dissatisfied with the rabbis 
and their contracts were not renewed. 



Greensboro Daily News , 9 December 1949, sec. 3, 



Greensboro Hebrew Congregation Executive Board 
meeting minutes, 2 December 1915, 9 March 1919, and 18 May 
1919. See Appendix I for the past rabbis of Temple Emanuel. 



39 

Rabbi Fred I. Rypins came to Temple Emanuel from 

Roanoke, Virginia in 1931. Rypins was held in 

high regard not only by the members of 
his congregation, but by the non-Jews of the 
city as well, as is evident by the fact that he 
was president of the Greensboro Ministerial 
Association, and also was president of Rotary — a 
distinct honor for a rabbi. 

Rypins' position as president of the Greensboro Ministerial 

Association made him the first rabbi in the country to head 

such an association. Rypins was one of the founders of the 

Greensboro section of National Brotherhood, now the National 

Conference of Christians and Jews. Rabbi Rypins was rabbi 

at Temple Emanuel until 1958 when he became rabbi emeritus. 

Rypins affected more people than just the members of Temple 

Emanuel. Rabbi Rypins had the respect of the citizens of 

Greensboro, Jew and non-Jew alike. 

Another man who was held in high esteem by the 

citizens of Greensboro was Naphtali Kagan. Kagan came to 

Greensboro in 1933. He was the new schochet for the Jewish 

Q 

community. Prior to Kagan's arrival, there had been 
mention of schochets in the Temple Emanuel Executive Board 



The American Jewish Times , December 1943, 
republished in the Temple Emanuel 75th Anniversary Booklet. 



Greensboro Daily News , 3 December 1969, p. 4 



A Schochet is a person who helps Jews in observances 
of rituals such as keeping kosher, assisting with brisses 
(briss is the ceremony of circumcision of a male infant 
eight days after birth), death rituals, etc. 



40 

meeting minutes, but these men had not been well recieved by 

9 
the congregation. Mr. Kagan however, v/as different. 

According to Fannie Love, Mr. Kagan respected all Jews 

regardless of their beliefs. He was an outstanding 

citizen in the Jewish community, and after 1949 held a joint 

appointment of schochet with Temple Emanuel and Beth David 

Synagogue until his retirement in 1960. Kagan was so well 

respected that even the non-Jewish community in Greensboro 

held him in very high esteem. " He led the Jewish community 

in the participation of Jewish religious rituals, and the 

observance of many rituals sparked some more religious 

members of Temple Emanuel to take action. 

Temple Emanuel had been, and still is a Reform 
congregation, however members respected others in the 
congregation who followed Jewish laws and rituals a bit more 
closely. In the early 1 9 4 ' s stricter members of the 
congregation felt the need to break away from the Reform 
congregation and pursue Judaism as they wanted to with 
appropriate spiritual leadership to guide and advise them. 

On December 15, 1944 Jewish citizens concerned with 



Greensboro Hebrew Congregation Executive Board 
meeting minutes, 9 February 1913, 9 March 1913, 4 April 
1915, and 22 May 1915. 

Mrs. Fannie Love, interview at her home, 
Greensboro, North Carolina, 6 January 1984. 

Rabbi Simcha Kling, interview at his home, 
Louisville, Kentucky, 27 September 1983. Rabbi Kling was 
rabbi at Beth David Synagogue 1951-1965. 



41 

their religion and the importance of its observances met at 

the home of Mr. and Mrs. Max Zager. 

[They] committed themselves to such 
interpretation and application of Jewish 
Tradition as is meaningful to the framework of 
Modern American Living; always mindful of the 
fact, that, all changes must be consistent with 
the spirit of Historic Judaism and must provide 
for the, fulfillment of the destiny of the Jewish 
People . 

The congregation became known as the Greensboro Conservative 

Hebrew Congregation, and on November 29, 1945 adopted a 

constitution and a set of by-laws. Services were held 

regularly at the Masonic Temple, the Victory Room of the 0. 

Henry Hotel, and the Civic Room of the public library. The 

first site of the Greensboro Conservative Hebrew 

Congregation was purchased March 13, 1946. Five months 

later the congregation elected its first rabbi, Meir Engle. 

A building committee was authorized by the congregation 

October 18, 1946 and plans for a synagogue were made. The 



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146 
and 



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1949 
t ion 

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and 

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Beth 



42 

ground breaking ceremony was January 26, 1947 and the 
synagogue was completed in 1949. The congregation had grown 
from 24 people at the first meeting of the congregation in 
1944 to 145 active families by 1949. 

There have been several stories as to the naming of 
the Greensboro Conservative Hebrew Congregation. Ethel 
Arnett, in her book Greensboro, North Carolina , wrote that 
the synagogue was named for Beth and David Stadiem prominent 
members of the conservative Greensboro Jewish community. In 
an interview Rabbi Simcha Kling, rabbi at Beth David 
Synagogue 1951-1965, denied Mrs. Arnett's story and 
explained Beth David in Hebrew means "House of David." 
Rabbi Kling said the family of Meyer David Stadiem gave a 
substantial amount of money to the building fund of the 
synagogue. It was however a family request that the 
synagogue be named Beth David Synagogue, and in the 
Dedication Booklet there was much praise for Meyer David 
Stadiem. Also Bessie Ethel Stadiem was mentioned as being a 
devoted parent to the Stadiem children. 

Women not only raised children in the Jewish 
community but they played a large part in the relationship 
between Greensboro and the Jewish population. While 
individual women made contributions to Greensboro and the 
community, organized women's groups contributed as well. 

The Temple Emanuel Sisterhood was an in-house 
organization, "a day-to-day assist group" to help the temple 



43 



13 



run smoothly. " For one decade the Temple Emanuel 
Sisterhood was a joint organization with the National 
Council of Jewish Women. They were called the 
Council-Sisterhood and were active not only inside the 
temple but outside as well. After 1946 the 
Council-Sisterhood separated and continued individual 
programming for each organization. 

The sisterhood was active in the Temple Religious 
School, the Temple library, uniongrams (sent in time of 
death or joyous occasions), student activities, the memorial 
fund, and many other areas of Temple Emanuel. The 
sisterhood also was affiliated with the national office of 
temple sisterhoods. While receiving dues from the Temple 
Sisterhood, the national office offered guidance and guest 
speakers to the sisterhood and others across the country. 
While sisterhood was concentrating on the internal works of 
Temple Emanuel, the National Council of Jewish Women was 
forging ahead in community activities. 

The Ladies Aid Society had been in operation for 
approximately ten years when a field worker with the 
National Council of Jewish Women (NCJW) came to Greensboro 



1984. 



'Mrs. Rodna Hurewitz, interview by phone, 6 March 



to ■'■ . 3 ' . '. ". the or gani za ti or •. : a c - - sec •. - ." - ',- ',- 

■ • - Ladies ' i 1 Society >ecame : • ; - Greensboro sect •, ' •. : • 
", [ . frs. Charles - . 'Bea ) • 2 3 ;he rs ore- - -. : 

■ - • section . During ; : ■- L920 s and Into - ' ? - L930 3 
'. - - ar 3 '. •- ' a 3 --■ ' " '. ' ' a ". ' • d •• a . ' projects, [ mm i gr a ti or 
for Ellis [ si an d a r '. sev ng and lien d in g : -. - : • : CI L d r er 
Some ; : •. ' ' Caro Lna. Ihe Council ; : I 30 :, ; . r a sewir ; : 
:.-, a c fiine to the ] aer cular fl ospi ta] anc r ; . •. a - : j sockets : a ' 

t h & ho s p i t a 1 . 16 '..'■■ ' a : - growing, as ■ ; . 3 3 a r o . 

Projects ;ere aegu r a : •: '. a ' a I a p sd '. al 2 Greer 3 a aro sect an . 
I - e '. .' • nought • " j 3er Lced aab] : r a j r '. : ahe ' ; . • ;r 

Aid at the railroad station. They pro ac ; . 3 tor 1 our £ r 

the orthopedics . a - -; at '. t . Leo r s J.c a 1 . "ic- '.-..-■.. \ 

continued to send funds a the Guilford arculosis 

San i t or ium , a a : soup :or : r -■ aubl ic schools, s a : 1 r a 1 e to 

■ - tf ear : . a s a R el ief fund , and pro Lde funds tor 3 a a : for 
the first cit leal tf ien ar tm en t iu r = a 



14 

Che Nation al Council of . a • a - 'Joiner >ras f un d ec 

L 8 9 3 . " . . . dedicated to furthering 1 urn ar welfare . - 

.-'-•• '. " and gen er al communities, Lo c ally , nationally, an d 

in t er na t i on al 1 ah r gr service, education, and s o c i al 

a a 1 Lor - - -. r. ".".-. e Ice:, card 1 e v 1 a ' Z r. c 7 c 1 C c e d i a , 1 V 5 3 : s , v , 

a t i o n al Council -. £ lewi sh Women." 

' a- . 1 1 . 7 .' a - . a - L9 8 4 

a t tonal Council a E Fewi si foin er n ee t i n g 1 mtes, 1 
fey L922. 

y N C J W [eeting Minutes , L2 ■•;.-.: L9 26 and t ; - : - 
L 9 29 . th er culat - -. 3 p . : a 1 alec cno wn a s I uh er cu i o sis 

S ar . tarium. 



45 
During World War II the NCJW contributed time and 
money to the Civilian Defense Volunteer Organization. 
Council members volunteered their time to give audometer 
tests in the schools. In the late forties and into the 
1950's NCJW ran the Bookmobile, the Asheboro Street library 
branch, and the Sixty Plus Club, the first club for senior 
citizens in Greensboro. The Council also supported the 
Greensboro Community Council, the Mental Health Clinic, the 
Medical Loan Closet, and the NCJW Overseas Scholarship 
program. Not only women were active in Greensboro during 
World War II. 

The city of Greensboro turned out for the soldiers 
stationed in the area in World War II. Many families 
welcomed servicemen into their homes, as did Fannie Love. 
Mrs. Love remembered having one soldier volunteer to make 
dinner; he was a cook in the army. The man made such a mess 
in the kitchen that Mrs. Love never let another man cook in 

1 Q 

her kitchen. Entertaining soldiers in private homes was 
only one courtesy provided by citizens. Prior to the 
establishment of a USO branch in Greensboro, Mr. and Mrs. Al 

Klein helped to set up a lounge downstairs in Temple Emanuel 

19 
for the servicemen. The Kleins ran the lounge with the 

help of other citizens who volunteered their time during 



1! 



Love, 6 January 198-4 



19 

Mrs. Min Klein, interview at her home, Greensboro 

North Carolina, 10 January 1984. 



46 



World War II. The Kleins were not only hospitable to the 
soldiers but they also took an active interest in the Jewish 
students at colleges in Greensboro. 

Mrs. Klein, Min, has spent much of her life working 
with youth. She, and her husband when he was alive, has 
always reached out to the Jewish college students, making 
them feel at home during the Jewish holidays. The Kleins 
also used to take students to the Hillel at the University 
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for dances. Mr. and Mrs. 

Klein were responsible for establishing B'nai B'rith Youth 

21 
Organization (BBYO) chapters in Greensboro in 1946. Teens 

from Winston-Salem, High Point, and Burlington participated 

in the Greensboro BBYO chapters. Mrs. Klein has also been a 

representative of Camp Blue Star for years and was the 

22 
librarian at the camp for six summers. While Mrs. Klein 

and others helped to develop the future leaders in the 

Greensboro Jewish community, there were local, national, and 



20 

Ibid., 10 January 1984. The Hillel Foundation was 

founded in 1923 and supported by the B'nai B'rith 

Organization. The purpose of the Hillel is to make 

available to students religion, culture, communal ideas, and 

counseling while they are on college campuses. 

21 Ibid., 10 January 1984. The B'nai B'rith Youth 

Organization, founded in 1923, is a moral, social, 

philanthropic, and educational organization for Jewish 
Youth. 

22 

Ibid., 10 January 1984. Camp Blue Star is a camp 

for Jewish children and is located in North Carolina. The 

camp teaches children about Judaism while enabling children 

to enjoy the experience of overnight summer camp. 



47 

international organizations that needed help and were 
assisted by the Greensboro Jewish United Charities. 

The Greensboro Jewish Federation started in 1939 when 
seven men, Walter J. Bernstein, Ben Cone, Sr., Ceasar Cone, 
II, Herbert S. Falk, Sr., Sidney J. Stern, Sr., Max Zager, 
and Milton Zauber banded together to do federated 
fundraising for urgent Jewish needs. They also saw that 
some statewide charities were helped. August 29, 1940 the 
Greensboro Jewish United Charities, Incorporated was given a 
charter by the state of North Carolina. Prior to this, 
citizens had been asked to donate each time a charitable 
organization needed funding. The Greensboro Jewish United 
Charities, Inc., went to the community and offered to accept 
one donation for the year. The donation would be 
appropriated so that many agencies would receive funding 
while citizens would not be asked to donate again until the 
following year--federated fundraising. The idea was 
accepted and quickly put into action. Federated fundraising 
was initiated by the Greensboro Jewish United Charities and 
the network of Jewish Federations across the United States 
soon adapted the fundraising style. " The single appeal for 
a variety of organizations was followed later by the United 



23 

Sherman Harris, executive director of the 

Greensboro Jewish Federation, interview at Greensboro Jewish 

Federation, Greensboro, North Carolina, 1 March 1984. See 

Appendix IX for Greensboro Jewish Federation Past 

President s . 



48 

Way. Another innovation, made by the network of 

federations, was the separation of donations by husbands and 

wives. The federation has tried to give women more 

independence by insisting on a separate contribution, 

although many women's donations come from their husbands' 

pockets. Distributing the funds was a great responsibility 

and Greensboro had competent and honest men heading the 

Greensboro Jewish United Charities, Inc. 

In Greensboro early activities included the support 

of the Jewish defense agencies. The Greensboro Jewish 

United Charities, Inc., helped to settle a number of refugee 

families in Greensboro between 1940 and 1950. Volunteers 

provided food, clothing, housing, furniture, and jobs for a 

few of the Holocaust survivors. The Greensboro Jewish 

United Charities, Inc., in conjunction with the National 

Refugee Committee, helped to settle Alice Fruh and her 

husband in Greensboro. It must be noted that while Mrs. 

Fruh left Germany in 1938, she still retains her accent. 

The Refugee Committee . . . When we came 
in 1938 we lived there [Long Island] two years 
and I worked in Nassau Country Club . . . The 
Refugee Committee in New York and they sent us. 
We had a choice--going to Greensboro to start a 
chicken farm or we go to California and a farm. 
He [Mr. Fruh] would work outside and I would be 
in the house . . . Without knowing what, I 
decided to go to Greensboro. I didn't know what 
it was. So we said to Ben Cone ... He settled 
us on the f arm . 



24 

Mrs. Alice Fruh, interview at the Blumenthal North 

Carolina Jewish Home, Clemmons, North Carolina, 28 December 

1983. 



49 
The Greensboro Jewish United Charities, in the same year 
they helped to settle the Fruhs, 1940, gave $5000 to help 
build the first Hillel House in Chapel Hill. Philanthropic 
efforts continued and a few Jewish women served as the first 
presidents, the first women presidents, or both, of various 
community wide organizations. 

Mrs. Meyer Sternberger was the founder and president 
of the Guilford County Association of the Blind in the early 
thirties. Laura W. Cone was the first female president of 
Greensboro Community Chest during the 1930's and the first 
female to head the Greensboro Jewish United Charities in the 

1940' s. Women were making themselves known in Greensboro 

25 
through their charity work and other endeavors. 

The Greensboro Jev/ish community did not only help 
themselves, but they helped others as well. While efforts, 
mentioned previously, were made by the National Council of 
Jewish Women and other organizations, Jewish individuals 
left their mark on Greensboro as well. 

Some men in the Jewish community served also as civic 
leaders in Greensboro. Eli and Jake Oettinger and Herman 
Cone, Sr. all served as president of the Greensboro Chamber 
of Commerce between 1930 and 1950. Sidney J. Stern, Jr. was 



25 

For more information on women's accomplishments in 

Guilford County, refer to Paula Stahls Jordan, Women of 

Guilford County, North Carolina (Greensboro: Greensboro, 

Printing Company, 1979). 



50 
the first Jew to hold the office of president of the 
Greensboro Junior Chamber of Commerce in 1948. Sidney J. 
Stern, Jr. and A. Sol Weinstein were judges in Greensboro 
Municipal Court from 1940-1942 and 1942-1948 respectively. 
Jews were now entering politics in Greensboro and one man, 
Benjamin Cone, proved to be especially successful. 

Benjamin Cone entered politics by becoming a member 
of the North Carolina House of Representatives in 1935-1937. 
Cone then served as a city councilman from May of 1947 to 
May of 1953, stepping down from 1949-1951 to serve as mayor 
of Greensboro. Mr. E. J. Evans was the Mayor of Durham, 
North Carolina from 1950 to 1961. For both Greensboro and 
Durham it was the first time either city had had a Jewish 
mayor. In addition to politics, Jews took an active 
interest in other civic areas. 

Many Jewish men held memberships in civic clubs in 
Greensboro although only a few served as president of their 
organizations. Rabbi Fred I. Rypins, Eli Oettinger, Jake 
Oettinger, and Julius Cone all held the office of president 
of the Rotary Club between 1930-1950. Sidney J. Stern, Sr. 
had been president of the Civitan Club. Evidence, as to 
whether or not Jews holding these positions was a first in 
Greensboro, in North Carolina, or even in the South, was not 
available. However, the number of Jewish men who were 
leaders in Greensboro was unique. Jewish men's clubs had 
been established by 1950 in the temple and in the synagogue. 



51 
Despite the men's clubs, Jewish men continued to belong to 
civic clubs and participate in the leadership of the 
organizations . 

Education has always been important to Jews, and 
Greensboro was no exception. The interest focused on 
education in the public schools. Bertha Sternberger and 
Flora Stern served on the Greensboro City Board of Education 
prior to 1930, and Sidney J. Stern, Sr. had sat on the 
Guilford County Board of Education. Higher education was 
also of interest to the Jewish community. Laura W. Cone sat 
on the University of North Carolina Trustee Executive 
Committee from 1934-1953 and also served for thirty years on 
the Bennett College Board. Jewish input into the public 
school educational system continued into the decades of the 
sixties, seventies, and eighties. 

The Greensboro Jewish community remained very active 
during the thirties and forties. They introduced federated 
fundraising which influenced fundraising techniques for many 
organizations nationwide. Jewish citizens made their entry 
into elected political positions in Greensboro and 
demonstrated their abiility to lead the city wisely. 
Earlier in the twentieth century, when a substantial Jewish 
community was emerging, leaders were in ore prominent members 
of Greensboro, i.e. the Cones and the Sternbergers. While 
these families were more well known so that their 
contributions were recognized, there were other Jews who 



52 
deserved acknowledgement of their efforts but went 
unnoticed. The dedication of these people and their 
contributions to Greensboro and the Jewish community during 
World War II brought with it the appreciation and 
recognition they so deserved. 

The Greensboro Jewish community continued to give one 
hundred and ten per cent. The community by 1950 was roughly 
three hundred and twenty families strong, and there were now 
two congregations. The Jewish people of Greensboro were 
satisfying their needs both inside the community and in the 
city at large. Nationally the 1950's would bring 
breakthroughs in civil rights, which would concern the 
Jewish community and would affect Greensboro in the years 
that would follow — the sixties and seventies. 



CHAPTER III 
MOVING TOWARDS THEIR OWN 
1950-1980 

The Greensboro Jewish community continued to 
participate in city affairs throughout the decades following 
World War II. Jews experienced the same losses due to wars, 
Korea and Vietnam, and the same gains due to better economic 
times as non-Jews in Greensboro. They were subjected to the 
same major events in Greensboro history as other citizens. 
Like many in Greensboro, Jewish citizens were not aware of 
the Greensboro Four, school desegregation or the "Death to 
the Klan" march until stories appeared in newspapers and on 
television. The Jewish Community was no different from any 
other community that was a part of Greensboro. The concerns 
of the city were also the concerns of the Jewish citizens of 
Greensboro. The Jewish Community had been assimilated for 
decades and what was good or bad for Greensboro was good or 
bad for the Jewish Community. 

Coming out of World War II and entering the decade of 
the 1950's Greensboro, just as the rest of the United 
States, was experiencing social and economic changes. The 
birthrate was still increasing, having begun upon the United 
States' entry into World War II. America's Baby Boom was in 
full swing. Families of three and four children were 
acceptable until the 1960's when overpopulation became an 



53 



54 
issue. People had better diets and new drugs such as 
penicillin, and advancements in public health services and 
medicine were helping to prolong lives. 

The second red scare was affecting the American 
people. McCarthyism had people walking on eggshells and 
whispering, making it safer to conform than to risk being 
accused of Communist activities. The scare soon died down 
and Blacks began to make headway in their efforts to obtain 
equal rights. 

Civil rights and education walked hand in hand during 
the fifties. Brown v. The Board of Education, Topeka, 
Kansas in 1954 was a major breakthrough. The court ruled 
that public school segregation was unconstitutional under 
the Fourteenth Amendment. The South objected to federal aid 
on consitutional grounds and because it meant enforcing 
desegregation. The Civil Rights Act of 1957 provided 
further efforts toward equal protection under the law 
regardless of color, race, religion, or national background. 

Jewish citizens in Greensboro, and across the 
country, who were familiar with Jewish history could 
identify with the denial of education and civil rights. 
Throughout Jewish history, especially European history, Jews 
had been prohibited from obtaining an education outside of 
their ghettos. Jews had not been recognized as first class 
citizens and therefore were not entitled to the same civil 
rights as most men. In the United States the Black replaced 



55 
the Jew as the second class citizen. Through the 
remembrance of their own history, Jews believed Blacks were 
entitled to the same liberties as white United States 
citizens . 

In Greensboro the Jewish community backed the civil 
rights movement. While Mrs. Fannie Love had no idea what 
she had walked into at Woolworth on February 1, 1960, Mr. 
Arnold Schiffman sat on the Advisory Committee on Community 
Relations that dealt with the Greensboro Four and the 
sit-ins. Many Jews supported civil rights, however like 
others in Greensboro when desegregation was enforced, many 
parents enrolled their children in the private Greensboro 
Day School. There were Jews in Greensboro who, like Rabbi 
and Mrs. Arnold S. Task, kept their children in public 

school because they "felt it was important to support and 

2 
stick with the schools."'' 

In 1979 the shooting of five participants in the 

"Death to the Klan" march aroused the concern of the Jewish 



cup o 

that 

the 1 

commo 

didn' 

inter 

1984. 



"I went down to Woolworth and had a sandwich and a 
f coffee, and I didn't have any idea of anything like 
[the sit-in] ... I went down in the basement [where 
unch counter was located] ... I never saw such a 
tion in my life . . . right in the middle of it and 
t realize what was going on. Mrs. Fannie Love, 
view at her home, Greensboro, North Carolina, 7 January 



Green 
of th 
1971 . 



Rabbi Arnold S. Task, interview at Temple Emanuel, 
sboro, North Carolina, 10 January 1984. Desegregation 
e Greensboro Public Schools was begun in the Fall of 



-j(> 



community through the identification of two Communist Worker 
Party members who had been killed. The two men killed were 
Jewish, however they had not affiliated with the Jewish 
community in Greensboro. They had come to the area as labor 
organizers for the textile mills in Greensboro among other 
things and had not permanently moved to the city. The Ku 
Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party have historically been 
anti Jewish organizations and just the existence of these 
groups has been a concern to Jews across the United States, 
not just in Greensboro. 

The Greensboro Jewish community has experienced 
little or no anti-Semitism since its beginnings. There have 
been individual incidents. Rabbi Sincha Kling admitted that 
in his fourteen years at Beth David Synagogue the synagogue 
received two bomb threats. Each time the police were called 
in and no bombs were found. Police were unsuccessful in 
finding the guilty parties. Rabbi Edward Feldheim, current 
rabbi at Beth David Synagogue, said that at the old 
synagogue location on East Lake Drive someone, or some 
people, defaced synagogue property by painting swastikas on 
the doors and on the building. The police dismissed it as 
children's mischief. Since the inception of a Jewish 
community in Greensboro anti-Semitism has been almost 
non-existent and continues to follow that pattern. Work 
done inside and outside of the Jewish community, by Jews, 



57 
helps Greensboro to maintain its openness and acceptance of 
Jews . 

Temple Emanuel opened its facilities to outside 
groups during the 1950's. Quakers used the sanctuary to 
hold Sunday services while they were building a new Meeting 
House. The religious school classrooms were used by the 
public schools when their own facilities were overcrowded. 
In 1958 a program for mentally retarded children, sponsored 
by the Greensboro public school system, occupied classrooms 
six days a week. 

The Temple has always rented out the whole facility 
to groups that have requested it. The Hebrew Academy, a 
school Jewish children attend to learn Hebrew after regular 
school hours, and the private Greensboro Day School were two 
such organizations which in the late 1950's and early 1960's 
were in need of a location and initially were permitted to 
use Tern pie Emanuel. These two groups later acquired 
permanent buildings to house their schools. Temple 
membership grew, however the facilities did not. 

The Religious School wing added to Temple Emanuel in 
1949 seemed to fill the need for more space for two decades. 
During this time the membership rose considerably. In 1952 
the temple membership was 201; by 1972 there were 277 



12 



Greensboro Daily News 19 January 1958, Sec. D, p. 



families. Temple Emanuel found a need to expand the 
facilities. 

The Frazier property, adajacent to Temple Emanuel, 
was purchased in 1971 for temple expansion. The house on 
the property was known as "the Annex" and was used for 
religious school classes. Fundraising was later begun for 
the Ruth and Fred I. Rypins Religious School building. The 
Annex was demolished and construction on the new building 
was begun in 1978. In January of 1980 the Ruth and Fred I . 
Rypins Religious School building was in use while the formal 
dedication did not take place until March 30, 1980. 

Likewise Beth David Synagogue, just prior to the 
seventies, found a need for expansion. Beth David Synagogue 
had been located at 610 East Lake Drive since 1949. In 1969 
a separate education center was completed on property owned 
by Beth David Synagogue. The Kagan Building, named for 
schochet Napthali Kagan, housed the religious school for 
Beth David Synagogue. A complete move from the East Lake 
location to the property on Winview Drive took place a 
little over ten years later. A new synagogue was built with 
the Kagan Building as a wing. The new Beth David Synagogue 
held its first function on January 1, 1980 and in January of 
1981 the syngogue was dedicated. ' The facility has proved 
to be very useful. Many organizations have held meetings 



Joyce Shuman, phone interview, 6 March 1984 



59 
industrial kitchen facilities. The Kagan Building has been 
occupied by the religious school on Sundays while M o n d a y 
through Friday, the Jewish Day School has been using the 
building . 

The Greensboro Jev/ish Day School has been in 
operation for approximately fifteen years. The first ten 
years were nomadic ones. The school's location changed 
quite often until 1979 when the school found a permanent 
home at Beth David Synagogue. The Greensboro Jewish Day 
School, an independent organization, has been using the 
synagogue facilities. The school, pre-school through sixth 
grade, has had an enrollment of roughly fifty students a 
year, meaning that twenty-two percent of all Jewish children 
are enrolled in religious school. J The Greensboro Jewish 
Day School fulfills the same requirements as public grade 
school while giving students a more intense education in 
Judaism. Jev/ish children were learning about their 
heritage, one that included a love for the temple and 
philanthropy. These children were able to learn about this 
love and philanthropy in school as well as by observing 
their own parents taking an active part in the temple/ 



Susan Clark, principal of the Greensboro Jewish Day 
School, interview at Greensboro Jewish Day School, 
Greensboro, N.C., 28 February 1934. 



60 
synagogue and in organizations such as the National Council 
of Jewish Women, Hadassah, and ORT. 

The sisterhoods of both Temple Emanuel and Beth David 
Synagogue fulfill their function very well. They assist 
their respective congregations in the functioning and 
maintenance of their facilities. Each sisterhood raises 
money to be put back into the congregation. The money is 
used to do everything from purchase books for the religious 
school to renovating the kitchen area of the facility. The 
sisterhood is a vital part of the congregation. Without 
the sisterhood, the responsibility of the temple/ synago gue 
would fall exclusively on the congregation executive board 
members and the rabbi. 

In 1968 the Temple Emanuel Sisterhood went beyond 

their in-house temple activities and joined the First 

Presbyterian Church and Holy Trinity Episcopal Church in 

organizing The Fisher Park Community Program. Mrs. Herbert 

S. Falk, Jr., one of the original executive board members, 

wrote 

The more specific purpose of our 
organization was to make these three 
congregations sensitive, vital, and supportive 
to and of the needs of the people in the 
congregations' changing neighborhood, and the 



See Appendices V and VI for Temple Emanuel and Beth 
David Past Sisterhood Presidents. 



61 

total commitment of the three _,groups working 
together was for a common cause. 

The Fisher Park Community Program, still in existence, has 

been very successful. 

The Fisher Park Community Program sponsored 

Read-A-Loud Programs in all the classes at Moore and Porter 

schools to encourage children to read by making reading fun. 

Also sponsored was a tutoring program for reading. 

Volunteers from all three congregations took part in the 

programs. There was a breakfast program established by the 

Fisher Park Community Program which fed children five days a 

week at two schools. The winter recreation program began in 

the facilities of the three congregations. The program grew 

and the Fisher Park Community Program found it necessary to 

associate with the Hayes-Taylor YMCA. 

The Fisher Park Program bought and paid for 
60-80 memberships for children who attended our 
after-school program Monday through Friday for 
instructional swimming and other recreational 
activities at the Y. 

There is also a summer program which has grown over 

the years. The three congregations have worked and grown 

together since the inception of the Fisher Park Community 

Program. The congregations jointly sponsor civic and 



Letter to the nominating committee for model of the 
year, Commission on Social Action of Reform Judaism, Union 
of American Hebrew Congregations, written by Mrs. Herbert S. 
Falk, Jr., 31 July 1979. 

8 Ibid. 



62 

educational programs open to the public, besides hosting 

g 
other similar programs for each other. 

The Men's Club at Beth David Synagogue and the 
Brotherhood at Temple Emanuel have been in existence since 
the late forties, early fifties. Both groups have had the 
same function at their respective congregations. Similar to 
the sisterhood, the men's organizations raise money for the 
congregations and also host lectures and educational 
programs. The Men's Club and the Brotherhood have always 
been less noticeable than the sisterhoods. The invisibility 
of the men's groups can be attributed to the fact that most 
men must work for a living and do not have much time for 
leisure. More recently the sisterhoods have lost some of 
their active members to the work force. Nevertheless, 
philanthropic groups within the Jewish community continued 
to be active. 

The National Council of Jewish Women (NCJW) 
Greensboro chapter continued to make headway from the 1950 ! s 
up through the 1 9 8 ' s . The Council held New American 
English classes for newly arrived immigrants to the 
Greensboro area. Mrs. Fred Rypins was the planner and 



Mrs. Rodna Hurewitz, phone interview, 6 March 1984. 

See Appendices VII and VIII for Temple Emanuel 
Brotherhood Past Presidents and Beth David Synagogue Men's 
Club Past Presidents. 



63 
supervisor for the New American English classes. Mrs. 
Rypins was known for using a Sears & Roebuck catalogue to 
help teach English. The Greensboro Council Woman , a 
publication for the NCJW, printed these deeds and efforts of 
the Council. One story in the February 1953 issue was about 
a teacher, Harold Suits, who was left paralyzed from an 
automobile accident. Suits was in St. Leo's Hospital unable 
to do much of anything to pass the time. It was remembered 
that a book projector, owned by the Council, was at St. 
Leo's and in working order. With the book projector, Suits 
was able to read while flat on his back. Council sent the 
projector with Suits when he was discharged from the 
hospital . 

NCJW forged ahead into the sixties with their Council 
House Day Care center. It was the first day care center to 
be located within a public housing project. By 1965 Council 
had opened a third day care center. The United Day Care 
services were incorporated in 1967 and in 1969 five day care 
centers were in operation. Joanne Bluethenthal, a member of 
NCJW, was a force behind receiving funding from the United 
Way for the day care project. Council sponsored Women in 
Community Action, Release Time for teachers, and the 
auxiliary for the North Carolina Jewish Home. One of the 
most exciting programs instituted by the National Council of 
Jewish Women was their Mobile Meals, introduced in the 
1 9 7 ' s . The project entailed delivering one hot meal a day 



64 
to homebound elderly people, and the program is still in 
operation today under the same name. 

Hadassah, founded in 1912, has had a three fold 
objective: to "raise the standard of health in 
disease-ridden Palestine; to encourage the development of 
Jewish life in America; and foster the Jewish ideal,." 
The object has always been to educate, inform and entertain. 
Hadassah is the largest womens volunteer organization in the 

United States with approximately three hundred and seventy 

12 
thousand members. The major activities, nationally, have 

been to raise money to fund hospitals and youth activities. 

For the third consecutive year a woman-to-woman program, 

which focuses on women's issues, has been sponsored. Since 

1976 Greensboro Hadassah chapter's largest fundraiser has 

been gift wrapping packages from Thanksgiving to Christmas 

13 

at the Four Seasons Mall. 

ORT is another Jewish women's organization which has 
a chapter in Greensboro. ORT was originally founded in 1880 
in Russia. ORT was established in the United States in 1922 
and stands for the Organization for Rehabilitation through 
Training. The goal of ORT was "to provide the sreatest gift 



The Standard Jewish Encyclopedia , 1958 ed . , s.v 
"Hadassah." 



12 



13 



Shuman, 8 March 1984 



Ibid 



65 

one can give to man: The opportunity to build and live 

one's own life with dignity by being productive, self 

supporting and skilled." ORT ' s goal has been obtained 

through providing Jewish students with vocational and 

technical schools throughout the world. 

The Greensboro chapter is a chapter at large because 

there are no other chapters in the area. ORT in Greensboro 

has not operated the way other chapters have. The 

organization does not have representation on community 

councils. 

We support the national organization through our 
fundraising, and have established a rapport 
through tours and contributions to the Weaver 
School in Greensboro which is an enrichment high 
school . 

The chapter has been making appeals through programming and 

education, but the organization has been struggling in 

Greensboro. There has been a lessening of volunt eer i sm . 

Organizations have had a great challenge in the 

Greensboro Jewish community. Organizations that have come 

to Greensboro within the last ten to fifteen years have had 



14 ORT pamphlet. "The ORT Woman of the 80 ' s , Eight 
Flames of Life." (n.p., n.d.) 



1 5 



1984 



addit 
has a 
twent 



Letter from Renee Silver to Karen Goddy, 12 March 



Renee Silver, phone interview 6 March 1984. In 
ion, according to Silver the Greensboro chapter of ORT 
membership of almost two hundred women although only 
y to twenty-five percent are active. 



to deal with those in the Jewish community who have felt 
that there are too many organizations in the city and that 
the Jewish women have spread themselves too thin among the 
organizations. This is due in part to the size of the 
Jewish community in Greensboro. No accurate count of Jews 
in Greensboro has been made, but there are roughly nine 
hundred to one thousand Jews in the city. The Greensboro 
Jewish community, despite the many organizations within its 
midst, has come together in times of need. 

The Six Day War in 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in 
1973 triggered a positive reaction from the Greensboro 
Jewish community. In 1967 a community meeting was held with 
a tremendous turnout, and a meeting was held again in 1973. 
The community was able to express its concern for Israel 
through the United Jewish Appeal. The Greensboro Jewish 
community has always been a generous fundraising community, 
especially during a crisis. In addition to the community 
meetings, citizens wrote letters to the editors of the 
newspapers and concerned themselves with educating the 
general public about the issues connected with each of the 
Israeli wars . 

The Jewish community has been very concerned about 
Israel's well being. Many of Greensboro's citizens have 
traveled to Israel. In January of 1969, the Jewish 
communities of the triad sent their rabbis to Israel with 



67 



1 7 



others members of the communities. There appeared to be 
no Zionist Movement in Greensboro. Rabbi Arnold Task said, 
"The efforts to raise money on behalf of Israel cannot be 

classified as really a Zionist movement. Its recognizing 

1 ft 
the need to care for fellow Jews." 

One way the Jewish community of Greensboro continued 

to care for fellow Jews was through the Jewish United 

Charities. The Greensboro Jewish United Charities continued 

to serve the community, Jews elsewhere in the United States, 

and abroad throughout the fifties, and sixties. Sherman 

Harris, Executive Director of the Greensboro Jewish 

Federation, said the turning point was 1967 and the Six Day 

19 
War. Harris explained that up until 1967, Jews in America 

had felt guilty about not doing enough for their brethren, 

hence the fundraising efforts by the Federation, previously 

known as the Jewish United Charities. The Six Day War 

turned guilt to pride and with the new identity came greater 



17 



Li 



Task, 10 January 1984 



Ibid. The Zionist movement was a movement to 
secure the Jewish return to the land of Israel. This was 
based on the assumption that Jews are a people or nation, 
unwilling or unable to assimilate themselves into other 
cultures. These people wished to retain their identity as a 
national community. 

19 

The Greensboro Jewish United Charities and the 

Greensboro Jewish Federation are names for the same 

organization and are used interchangeably. Sherman Harris, 

executive director of the Greensboro Jewish Federation, 

interview at Greensboro Jewish Federation, Greensboro, North 

Carolina, 1 March 1984. 



I„S 



responsibility. Fundraising efforts escalated as did the 
power of the person or persons who appropriated funds. 
Harris spoke of the trust given to those leaders who decided 
to whom funds were given and how much they received. The 
trust has been there or the Federation would not still 
exist. Many businessmen had served as chairman of the 
Greensboro Jewish United Charities. The position had been a 
voluntary one, but by 1972 the community felt the need for a 
professional. 

The Greensboro Jewish United Charities became the 
North Carolina Triad Jewish Federation, including 
representatives from the Winston-Salem and High Point Jewish 
communities. The Federation was doomed from the beginning. 
The structure was weak. There was one director to oversee a 
triad board consisting of representatives from each city. 
In addition to the triad board, there were individual boards 
in each city. The greatest factor for failure however was 
that each city raised money individually. The job was too 
large for one man, professional or not. Each city was 
different, each had dissimilar needs and each had raised 
unequal amounts of money. Nevertheless the Triad Jewish 
Federation tried to make it work. Later Winston-Salem and 
High Point dropped out and by 1980 the Federation became the 
Greensboro Jewish Federation and Sherman Harris its 
executive director. Harris commented that the quality of 



69 
leadership in the Greensboro Jewish community has made the 
difference, and that the Federation ranks at the top of 
small city federations. 

The Greensboro Jewish community continued to take an 
active part in civic activities in Greensboro in the 
fifties, sixties, and seventies. Benjamin Cone continued to 
serve Greensboro after he had left the office of mayor in 
1951 and the city council in 1953. Cone was president of 
the Greensboro Community Chest in 1954 and again in 
1957-1958. (By 1957 the Community Chest was the United 
Way.) Cone did not stop. He was president of the 
Children's Home Society from 1960-1965, and in 1973 the 
Greensboro Chamber of Commerce recognized Cone, and his 
service to the city, by awarding him the Distinguished 
Citizen Award . 

Ceasar Cone, II was the president of the Greensboro 
Chamber of Commerce in 1954. Cone also sat on the 
Greensboro High Point Airport Authority from 1942 until 
1967. Stanley Frank too, took a seat on the Greensboro-High 
Point Airport Authority in 1962 and is still serving. Frank 
was president of the Chamber of Commerce in 1973. As for 
the Jr. Chamber of Commerce, Dick Forman and Henry H. 
Isaacson both served as president in 1966 and 1967 
respectively . 



20 



Harris, 1 March 1984 



70 

Civic clubs remained a part of Greensboro Jewish 
citizens activities. Dr. Sidney F. LeBauer served as 
president of the YMCA for three years in the early 1960's, 
and LeBauer had also been president of the Civitan Club. 
Norman Block and David Helberg were leaders in the Kiwanis 
Club. Jewish citizens in Greensboro put their efforts into 
a variety of civic needs. 

Jewish citizens continued to take an active part in 
education in Greensboro. Roughly the same time Louise Falk 
was serving on the Board of Trustees for the University of 
North Carolina at Greensboro, Joanne Bluethenthal served on 
the Greensboro Board of Education, 1974-1982. Bluethenthal 
has been involved in many educational activities. She was 
the first chairperson of the Lay-Professional Advisory 
Committee established by the Greensboro Board of Education. 
Bluethenthal also helped develop Social Service Seminars for 
high school seniors. In another area, Bluethenthal was the 
first woman to sit on the Greensboro Housing Authority 
Board. Bluethenthal was awarded the Nat Greene Award for 

community service by the Greensboro Chamber of Commerce 

9 1 
during the seventies. 

The cultural growth made during the decades of the 

seventies and eighties has been tremendous. The Jews in 



21 , 

Nat or Nathaniel Greene was mentionec 

thirteen in reference to the naming of Greensboro 



71 

Greensboro took an interest in the arts. Mr. and Mrs. 
Herbert S. Falk, Sr., were, Mrs. Falk still is, very active 
with the Weatherspoon Gallery. In 1946 Mrs. Falk (Louise) 
was trying to find people to sit on the Board of Directors 

for the Gallery. Mr. Falk said yes, and after that he could 

22 
not do enough for the Gallery. While involved with the 

Weatherspoon Gallery, individuals such as Sheldon 

Morganstern helped the Eastern Music Festival take on a new 

prominence in the 1 9 7 ' s . The Jewish community has always 

made efforts to enlighten the non-Jewish community as to 

Jewish history, beliefs, and ideals and cultural events such 

as guest lectures has been one way to reach the public. The 

Temple Emanuel Brotherhood sponsored a guest speaker, Simon 

Wiesenthal, in 1976. Held at War Memorial Auditorium, over 

1400 people attended the event. Another major speaker was 

Elie Weisel. These speakers discussed the Holocaust, their 

lives and the effects the Holocaust had on them. Rabbi 

Arnold Task, of Temple Emanuel, has taken a very active part 

in the city by serving on the Human Relations Commission and 

similar organizations. His efforts, since his arrival in 

1968, have enabled the Jewish community and himself to 

retain the respect they have received throughout the years. 



22 



Louise Falk, phone interview, 6 March 1984 



72 
What has changed in Greensboro has been the Jewish 
social pattern. The social pattern of the Greensboro Jewish 
community had remained consistent until the 1970's. The 
community then began to move towards their own, socializing 
with other Jews almost exclusively and insisting that their 
children do the same. Some Greensboro Jewish citizens felt 
the community had always followed this social pattern, while 
others felt that the Jewish community had never preferred 
Jews to non-Jews. One can only speculate as to why the 
community became clannish. Historically, Jews in Europe had 
been clannish because they had been forced to live together, 
i.e. in the ghettoes of Europe, or because there was safety 
in numbers and there was no danger of being ostracized by 
the community for being Jewish. In the United States there 
were other explanations for Jewish clannishness. Jewish 
immigrants, coming to America by the thousands between 
1880-1920, tended to settle in their port of entry, in most 
cases New York City. The New York Jewish population 
increased immensely. More recent Jewish immigrants, post 
1900, settled in neighborhoods already occupied by Jews, 
thus making it easier to survive without knowing English. 
Many immigrants learned only limited use of the language or 
depended on their children to speak English for them. 
Greensboro did not hold true to the social pattern in the 
early twentieth century. 

Rabbi Arnold Task attributed the early social pattern 



73 
of the Jewish community to the population of Greensboro and 

the Jewish community. The population of both increased 

23 
considerably between 1920 and 1930. ' Greensboro had had a 

population of 19,861 in 1920 but by 1930 it was a thriving 

city of 53,569. Temple Emanuel increased its membership as 

well, but by a smaller percentage. Membership stood at 

fifty in 1922 and increased to seventy -seven by 1925, but in 

24 
1948 temple membership stood at one hundred and sixty-six. 

The "second generation indifference" did not affect 

25 
the Greensboro Jewish community as it did larger areas. 

Many of these second generation Jews lived in large cities 



23 

Greater Greensboro, the physical expansion of the 

city which took place in 1923, was discussed in Chapter I. 

24 

The availability of information pertaining to the 

population of the Greensboro Jewish Community is limited. 

There is no count readily available by any organization. 

The Temple and the Synagogue can offer membership figures, 

however there are Jews in the community not affiliated with 

a religious congregation. 

25 

In American Jewish history, there was 

called the "second generation indifference" 

1920's and 1 9 3 ' s . Second generation America 

were breaking away from their heritage. While 

cut off their ties with the past, their languag 

and old world ways passed down from their 

immigrant grandparents were not used and th 

forgotten. However these second generation Je 

to marry other Jews, to socialize primarily wit 

and continued to retain memberships in synago 

B'nai B'rith Lodges and the YMHA (Young 

Association ) . 



w 


hat has 


been 




during 


the 


n 


born 


Jews 


e 


seekin 

(Yidd 

parents 


g to 

ish) , 

and 


ere for e 


were 


w 
h 

O 


s continued 

other Jews, 

ues/temples, 


M 


ens H 


ebrew 



74 
where Jews made up ten to forty-five percent of the 
population. In smaller cities and towns attitudes did not 
always follow the pattern of larger cities. 

The elders in the Greensboro Jewish community boasted 
that they had always had as many non-Jewish friends as 
Jewish ones. It was also true that while some Greensboro 
Jewish leaders intermarried they did not turn their backs on 
Judaism. They did not insist their spouses convert to 
Judaism or raise their children as Jews. This made for an 
interesting and productive Jewish /Gen t i 1 e relationship in 
Greensboro. 

The city's population continued to grow and by 1960 

26 
Greensboro had surpassed Winston-Salem in population. As 

the Jewish community grew, so did the needs of its members. 

The significance of one's roots and of being with people of 

similar backgrounds, religious or ethnic, became more 

important. The latter need of a similar background was also 

a major point for those moving to the area who knew no one 



Census figures for Greensboro and Winston-Salem: 

Greensboro Winston-Salem 

1950 74,389 87,811 

1960 119,574 111,135 

1970 144,076 132,913 

1980 155,642 131,885 

U.S., Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, United 
States Census of Population: 1962 , vol. 1, Characteristics 
of the Population , pt. 35, North Carolina; U.S. Department 
of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, United States Census of 
Population: 1980 , vol. 1, Characteristics of the Population , 
pt. 35, North Carolina. 



75 
living in the city. 

Jewish families that settled in Greensboro in the 
late 1960's and 1970's had primarily come from Jewish 
communities that were very active. Jews from other 
communities had participated in temple/synagogue 
organizations like Sisterhood and Men's Club. They may have 
also been involved with Jewish organizations such as ORT, 
NCJW, B'nai B'rith, Hadassah, etc. These people felt the 
need to continue the participation they had known in other 
communities. Another vantage point was that of the Jew who 
moved to Greensboro from a large Northern city, i.e. New 
York City. While living in New York there was no need to 
make an effort to socialize with Jews since the area was 
heavily Jewish in population. Jews in areas like New York 
were taken for granted. Not until Jews moved from New York 
to Greensboro, or any other small city, did it make a 
difference. The third migration came from cities smaller 
than Greensboro with barely visible Jewish communities. The 
move to Greensboro for many of the above mentioned 
communities brought out the same need in all of them, the 
need for themselves and their families to lead active Jewish 
lives. To many this meant almost exclusively socializing 
with Jews . 

Entering the eighties the Greensboro Jewish 
community, if its social pattern is to continue to change, 
must remember its history of interaction with the rest of 



76 
the city. Many of the Greensboro Jewish leaders of the past 
are no longer alive. The new leaders must help to maintain 
the relationship that the Jewish community has had with the 
non-Jewish community in Greensboro. Many of the new leaders 
have lived in Greensboro for less than a decade and are not 
aware of the rich Jewish history in Greensboro. The 
Greensboro Jewish community must not lose sight of their 
goals, nor should they forget their accomplishments or 
contributions of the past. A museum or exhibit area would 
enable the Jewish community to take a look at itself, its 
unusual history, and its contributions to Greensboro. 



CHAPTER IV 
A FUTURE FOR THE PAST 

The Greensboro Jewish community has played a 
considerable part in the city's twentieth century history. 
Jewish contributions to Greensboro are not as apparent today 
as they were prior to the seventies. The Jewish community 
has been drifting away from city activities and has been 
pouring all its efforts into itself. While there are a few 
Jews who participate in Greensboro civic affairs, the 
numbers cannot compare to the numbers of participants prior 
to the sixties. The Greensboro Jewish history is being 
forgotten. There are many Jewish citizens unfamilar with 
the rich history of the Jewish community and its 
contributions to Greensboro, which have been presented in 
Chapters I through III. The preservation of the Jewish 
history of Greensboro is a need recognized by only a few. 

There is a need to preserve and interpret the 
heritage of the Greensboro Jewish community. Many of 
Greensboro's Jewish citizens today are from other areas of 
the country. They are influencing the changes in social 
patterns among Jews as is discussed in Chapter III. Natives 
and non-natives alike are unaware of the history of Jewish 
participation and acceptance in Greensboro. If Jews want 
the acceptance to continue then they must learn the 
Greensboro Jewish history and take an active interest in 



77 



preserving it. An exhibit area, with displays changing 
monthly or so, would be a reinforcement of the Greensboro 
Jewish community history. 

Rabbi Arnold S. Task is one of the very few who 
recognize the need for a museum and tried to do something 
about it. Rabbi Task identified a room which could be an 
exhibit area where artifacts, photographs, and documents 
pertaining to the history of the Jewish community might be 
displayed. The room, located in Temple Emanuel behind the 
main sanctuary, is currently only used by grooms before 
marriages held in the sanctuary and by Jewish adult 
education classes which are small in size and are conducted 
in a relaxed atmosphere. Objects presently in the room 
include: two couches, three to five chairs, wall to wall 
carpeting, a free standing full length mirror, built-in 
bookcases along two walls, the 1910 cornerstone from Temple 
Emanuel's old Lee Street location, a picture of Emanuel 
Sternberger (Temple Emanuel's first president), and a file 
cabinet which holds the Temple Emanuel archives. 

Currently the archives contain not only records of 
temple activity but it also holds correspondence related to 
Jewish organizational involvement and information pertaining 
to the fiftieth anniversary of Temple Emanuel in 1958. The 
temple executive board meeting minutes, from 8 February 1908 
to 7 April 1925, are on file. There are a few copies of the 
orginal minutes and one typed copy. The meeting minutes of 



79 
the National Council of Jewish Women, NCJW (formerly the 
Ladies Aid Society), from 1916-1932, the temple Sisterhood 
29 October 1930 through 18 May 1936, the Council-Sisterhood 
5 May 1941 through 7 October 1946, and again the Sisterhood 
October 1946 through May 1952 are also located in the 
archives. In addition to meeting minutes, there is 
correspondence in reference to the temple building Fund, the 
United Jewish Campaign, the American Joint Distribution 
Committee, the United Palestine Appeal, the Emergency 
Committee on Jewish Refugees, B'nai B'rith Organization, and 
the Anti-Defamation League all between 1922 and 1925. There 
are letters, newspaper clippings and speeches from both the 
fiftieth and se vent y- f i f th anniversaries of Temple Emanuel, 
and there are also photographs. Dr. Donald Cone, temple 
member and amateur historian, put the archives in some 
order, but the records need to be arranged in chronological 
order making things much easier to find. After Dr. Cone 
straightened up the archives, a boy scout went through each 
file drawer and made a list of the contents found in the 
drawer. The list was then placed in the front of each 
drawer. With the current archives, only one room is needed. 
A museum for the Greensboro Jewish community needs no 
more than one room for exhibits. Presently what has been 
collected, photographs and documents, could not fill up more 
than one room. In addition this proposal envisions that no 
more than three to four exhibits would be on display at one 



80 
time. Because of the limited amount of space in Temple 
Emanuel, it is imperative that the exhibit area be fitted 
into one room. In the future if the temple needs to expand 
its facility, then a room could be included solely for 
museum purposes. 

Museums vary in their usage. Some museums deal 
specifically with art, natural history, or science etc., 
while others are a hodgepodge, exhibiting a little of 
everything. Recently smaller local museums have become 
popular just as memberships in the American Association of 
Museums (A AM), the National Trust for Historic Preservation 
and the American Association for State and Local History 
(AASLH) have increased. A Greensboro Jewish community 
museum would specialize in the history of the Jews in 
Greensboro and their contributions to the city. The museum 
would cover all aspects of Jewish life in traditional Jewish 
history and in Greensboro and would record citizens' 
participation in business, the professions, the community, 
and in philanthropic projects. Each topic would be 
researched carefully and then exhibited in an informative 
but entertaining way. Currently the lack of objects for 
display hinders the naming of the exhibit area a museum. 

The definition of a museum, given by the American 

Association of Museums, is 

an organized and permanent nonprofit 
institution, essentially educational or 
aesthetic in purpose, with professional staff, 



which owns and utilizes tangible objects, cares 
for them, and exhi bi ts , them to the public on 
some regular schedule. 

A museum for the Greensboro Jewish community would not be an 

official museum with accreditation, at least not right away. 

Given the contents already included in the Temple Emanuel 

archives a museum may be too much to ask for. However the 

possibility exists that objects may be located and that the 

objects, such as clothing, religious objects, etc., would be 

added to the documents, photographs, and correspondence 

already available. A single room to display the collection 

2 
may be enough for the Jewish community at this time. 

A museum would still require a staff to organize and 

catalogue the archives and also design and set up exhibits 

on Greensboro Jewish history. A volunteer staff with one 

person in charge would be adequate, with consultations 

periodically with a museum professional. A committee 

consisting of members of Temple Emanuel, Beth David 



Pr of e 



Mar 
ssiona 



ilyn Hicks Fitzgerald. 

1 Standards (Washington, 



Museum Accreditation: 



D.C 



American 



Association of Museums, 1973), pp. 8-9. 



opera 
Intro 



1 or 
t i on : 
due t ioi 



addition information on museums and their 

Edward P. Alexander, Museums in Motion: An 

to the History and Functions of Museums , 



(Nashville: American Association of State and Local 
History, 1979); G. Ellis Burcaw, Introduction to Museum 
Work , (Nashville: American Association for State and Local 
History, 1975); Ralph H. Lewis, Manual for Museums , 
(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976); 
and Arminta Neal, Help! For The Small Museum: Handbook of 
exhibit Ideas and Methods . (Boulder, Colorado: Druett 



Publishing, 1969) 



82 



Synagogue, and Jews in Greensboro not affiliated with a 
congregation could oversee the history room by outlining the 
project, soliciting and retaining funds, properly allocating 
the funds, and making the overall decisions pertaining to 
the history room. However before a committee can be 
created, the community must be made aware of the project. 

The history project should be for the entire 
Greensboro Jewish community. Efforts must first be made to 
notify the community and appeal for help. Both 
congregations send news letters to their members providing a 
perfect means for recruiting interested persons. For those 
Jews not affiliated with Temple Emanuel or Beth David, 
information can be circulated by word of mouth, in the 
Greensboro News and Record , and by announcements made in 
history classes at the universities in the area. Already 
existing historical organizations, such as the Greensboro 
Historical Museum should be contacted for advice and 
assistance. After interested people are found, a committee 
can be elected and volunteers can be gathered. The greatest 
problem facing the project is funding. 

Money is a necessity in the establishing of a museum 
and in the preservation of its collection. The project is 
considered a luxury, and there are other areas of the 
congregations which are in need of funding. However the 
possibility of acquiring money for the exhibit area does 



83 
exist. If people in the community are persuaded of the need 
for the project then three possibilities exist: one, that 
citizens will financially support the project; two, citizens 
will give or loan objects and documents of historical value 
to the museum; and three, there will be people who will 
volunteer their time to establishing and running the museum. 
If at a later date the exhibit area is accredited, grants 
could be sought through local and national foundations. 
After funding is received from inside and outside of the 
Jewish community, the current contents of the archives 
should be organized and preserved. Photographs, documents, 
and records all need careful treatment. 

The preservation of photographs and documents is very 

3 
important and will always run into some expense. The 

temperature and the humidity of the room in which the 

photographs are located should remain constant. Color 

prints and slides tend to fade and even black and white 

photographs deteriorate. A good setting is 65°-70°F and the 

humidity level no more than fifty percent. Higher 

temperatures and humidity lead to accelerated damage to 

photographs . 



3 
Additional information on photograph preservation 

can be found in: John Hedgecoe, The Photographer's 

Handbook , (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1978); Robert A. 

Weinstein and Larry Booth, Collection, Use, and Care of 

Historical Photographs , (Nashville: American Association of 

State and Local History, 1977); and The American Association 

of State and Local History publishes History News Technical 

Leaflets which contain up-to-date information. 



84 

All photographs, after being identified and 
catalogued, should be put into separate acid-free folders. 
Copies of photographs can be put in acid free storage boxes 
with index numbers on the outside of the box for 
accessibility. All should be stored in steel cabinets. 
These suggestions are for the protection of the collection. 
Slides should also be stored properly in boxes after 
indexing. Negatives should all be in individual jackets or 
envelopes. 

The storage area should be free of materials like 
fresh paint, cleaning supplies, etc. that give off harmful 
fumes. Air in the storage area should be filtered to 
protect the collection from dust and gasses that can 
contribute to the deterioration of the collection. 

While cataloguing and storing the collection 
immediate problems should be dealt with. Torn photographs 
should be replaced if there are not already copies in the 
collection. Photographs already dry mounted should be put 
in transparent or plastic jackets and then stored. The 
photographs should be examined from time to time to replace 
fading slides and damaged photographs. 

Documents must be cared for in much the same way as 
photographs. They should be checked for deterioration and 



Cataloguing , 
discussed later. 



indexing, and accessioning will be 



xerox copies of the documents should be made. Even a 
transcription should be made if the handwriting is difficult 
to read. Both the originals and the copies should be kept 
in acid free folders and acid free document boxes for 
storage in a cabinet or on an open shelf. In the document 
boxes the papers can lie flat instead of standing on edge. 
The contents of the Temple Emanuel Archives should be 
preserved and catalogued. 

Cataloguing the collection is tedious but necessary 
for the museum project. The documents and photographs 
already in the possession of Temple Emanuel should be 
catalogued in those classes of photographs and documents and 
then subdivided by subject, including cross referencing 
whenever necessary. The idea is to classify the information 
in as many subject categories as possible thus allowing 
researchers to acquire as much information as is available. 
When cataloguing the collection one should include: 

a catalogue number 

an accession number if available 

the classification of the item 

the object itself 

where the object was located 

a physical and historical description 



Ralph H. Lewis, Manual for Museums , (Washington, 
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976), pp. 60-112. 



86 



the date when received 

who it was received from 

how it was acquired 

j. its value if possible 

k. the item's present location 

1. who identified the object 

the cataloguer 

the date of the removal of the item, if a 

i 6 
1 oan . 

If not all of the above mentioned cataloguing procedures can 

be answered then only enter in the catalogue what is known. 

For what is currently in the Temple Emanuel archives not all 

information is available. Besides cataloguing the 

collection, it should be indexed for easy access. 

The index cards, of which there should be more than 

one copy, should contain an accession number, a catalogue 

number, any cross references in cataloguing and a brief 

description. The index should be kept separate from the 

collection and used just like a card catalogue in a library. 

The cataloguing and indexing is a time consuming project but 

it must be done. The cataloguing and indexing should be 

completed before going to the Jewish community in search of 



Ralph H. Lewis, Manual for Museums , (Washington, 
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976), pp. 150-155; 
Burcaw, Introduction to Museum Work , pp. 84-89. 



photographs, manuscripts, and other documents to add to the 
collection. The archival collection should be catalogued 
and indexed first, making the accessioning and cataloguing 
of new objects much easier. Since the process is so time 
consuming, the procedure should be started as soon as 
possible, leaving more time to catalogue incoming objects 
for the collection. 

When the museum begins to receive accessions from the 
community, an acknowledgement by the museum to the donor or 
lender will have to be made. A record will also have to be 
kept of all accessions. The record will include the date 
received, a description, who it was received from, if it was 
a gift, loan, etc., and a catalogue number. The 
accessioning, indexing, and cataloguing can be as difficult 
or as easy as one wants to make it. The easier the method, 
the faster the process is to comprehend and to use. 

The following ideas are presented as possible 
exhibits for the museum of Greensboro Jewish history. The 
suggestions would adapt to the structure of the present room 
set aside for the project. A graphic demonstration of Jews 
in Greensboro can be presented in the form of a chart, 
comparable to a family tree. Charts can be made of Jewish 
interests in business, religion and civic events through 
Greensboro history in addition to traditional Jewish 



Lewis , pp . 21-31 



history. Also photographs, documents, and objects such as 
clothing, instruments, furniture, etc. can be exhibited 
pertaining to Jewish interests mentioned above. Another 
exhibit could focus on the founders of Temple Emanuel and 
Beth David Synagogue, again with photographs and 
biographies. The exhibit could be visual (pictures) and 
audio (a tape recorder with spoken biographies of the 
founders of the temple and the synagogue). The same could 
be done for Jewish philanthropic organizations. 

In May of 1983 the Greensboro Historical Museum 
presented an exhibit about the Holocaust and survivors 
living in the Greensboro area. Rabbi Task currently has the 
exhibit in storage and wants it on permanent display in the 
exhibit area. While the museum and its exhibits will be 
quite challenging, the biggest problem will be keeping 
people interested. 

Temporary exhibits need to be changed monthly. A 
month is enough time for a community to see the exhibits 
presented in one small room. Traveling exhibits pertaining 
to Judaism are available through the Hebrew Union College in 
Cincinnati. Children can be involved through their 
religious school classes. Each grade can present an exhibit 
on each Jewish holiday, appearing the same month as the 
holidays. Religious school children could research their 
own family histories and make family trees to exhibit in the 



89 
museum. Since the exhibits will have to be planned at least 
three months in advance, public interest can be aroused by 
placing a riddle or a puzzle in the temple and synagogue 
newsletters two to three months prior to the exhibit. The 
Jewish community can be reached through many creative ideas. 
Above were just a few rough ideas. 

The Greensboro Jewish Community museum would serve 
not only the Jewish community but the non-Jewish community 
as well. Opened to the public, the history room would give 
others exposure to Judaism that many Gentiles never receive. 
The room would also serve as a research center for 
Greensboro Jewish History. The museum can share and learn 
from other surrounding museums. The history room can 
receive consultations from accredited institutions such as 
the Greensboro Historical Museum and Morehead House. 

The history of the Jewish community in Greensboro is 
very important, not only in city and state history, but in 
the history of the South as well. The Greensboro Jewish 
community history is relatively young— twentieth century 
history, which means it should be easy to obtain. A few of 
the elders are still alive and oral history can be acquired 
by talking with the elders about the history through their 
experiences eighty to eighty-four years ago. First things 
first, the community should be made aware of the museum 
proposal. All those interested should be invited to 
participate and then cataloguing and indexing should begin. 



90 
The project should take at least six months to a year for 
doing all the preliminary work plus planning, researching, 
and roughly putting together exhibits for at least three to 
six months so that those running the museum can stay ahead 
of the necessary tasks. 

The Greensboro Jewish Community, since the beginning 
of the twentieth century, has taken a very active part in 
the growth of Greensboro. The Cones and the Sternbergers 
established Greensboro as a major textile city in the South. 
Other Jewish citizens led the Jewish community in community 
growth. While Greensboro, High Point, and Winston-Salem's 
Jewish communities were begun roughly about the same time, 
Greensboro's community has made a significant impression on 
the city. High Point and Winston-Salem may have a few 
individuals who stand out, but their communities on the 
whole have not been a driving force in their respective 
cities. 

There are approximately ten thousand Jews in North 
Carolina, the largest concentration of Jews located in 
Charlotte, followed closely by Greensboro since 1970. 

Through the history of the Greensboro Jewish 
Community many individuals have taken their places on city 
and college school board, the city council, the Chamber and 
Junior Chambers of Commerce, and in many civic clubs and 
organizations. It appears more evident that since the 
1970's fewer Jews in Greensboro have gotten involved in 



91 
government and civic affairs, but have placed more emphasis 
on their own community. The change in social pattern has 
contributed to the swing from city at large to community. 

With the changes occurring in the Jewish Community, 
their social pattern and their directed energies in their 
community, they must be reminded of the rich Jewish heritage 
in Greensboro. Although the community is only eight decades 
old, many of the Jewish community's contributions have been 
recognized. There are streets in Greensboro named after the 
Blumenthals, the Cones, the Oettingers, the Sternbergers, 
and the Susmans (although the city spells it Suss man) to 
name a few. There are two public schools Ceasar Cone, and 
Sternberger School named for Jews. Donations to educational 
institutions produced Laura Cone Hall at Bennett College, 
Sternberger Auditorium at Guilford College, and Cone Ball 
Room, Cone and Weill Residence Halls and the Rosenthal 
Gymnasium at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 
Greensboro also has a Cone Ball Park, a Sussman's 
Playground, and a Sternberger Park. Through dedication to 
city and community, Jews in Greensboro have helped to build 
libraries and other buildings. The Greensboro Jewish 
community should realize how important their history is and 
preserve it through the establishment of a museum. 

A history museum would be a reminder of the Jewish 
heritage in Greensboro. It would also help to remind the 
community to not cut off its ties with the city. It may 



92 
have only been individuals who were recognized for their 
civic work, but if those important individual efforts are 
not reinforced to the Jewish community, there will not be 
Jewish individuals interested in taking part in civic 
activities in the future. The Jewish Community could 
totally withdraw from any involvement outside its own 
community. Like a balancing act, the Greensboro Jewish 
community while changing its social pattern to fit its 
present needs, must keep the past in mind to help balance 
their needs within the community and their participation in 
the city at large. The Jews in Greensboro established 
themselves and worked to make themselves a part of 
Greensboro. 

One cannot even speculate as to what kind of city 
Greensboro would be if Jews had not played such a large part 
in its growth in the twentieth century. Greensboro has 
itself to thank for encouraging early Jews such as the Cones 
and the Sternbergers to establish their mills in the city, 
and for accepting the Jews who chose to settle in the city 
so graciously. The Jewish experience in Greensboro has been 
unique, one of respect and admiration of both Gentiles and 
Jews. Regardless of the past, present, and future needs of 
the Jewish community, if the community remains aware of its 
history in Greensboro, the unprecedented relationship 
between the city and Jewish community will survive. 



APPENDIX 

I 

Temple Emanuel Past Rabbis 



<H 



Rabbi G. Mendelsohn 
Rabbi Louis Engelson 
Rabbi J. Friedlaender 
Rabbi Simon Cohen 
Rabbi Montague Cohen 
Rabbi Max Kauffman 
Rabbi Milton Ellis 
Rabbi Frederick Rypins 
Rabbi Joseph Asher 
Rabbi Arnold S. Task 



approx. 1908-1910 

approx. 1910-1914 

approx. 1914-1916 

1916-1917 

1918-1919 

approx. 1924-1925 

1925-1930 

1931-1958 

1958-1968 

1 968-pr esent 



94 



APPENDIX 

II 

Beth David Synagogue Past Rabbi: 



Rabbi Meyer Engel 
Rabbi Benjamin Sincoff 
Rabbi Myer Schwartzer 
Rabbi Simcha Kling 
Rabbi Bernard Spielman 
Rabbi Herschel Brooks 
Rabbi Edward Feldheim 



1946-1947 
1947-1950 
1950-1951 
1951-1965 
1965-1968 
1968-1972 
197 2-present 



APPENDIX 

III 

Temple Emanuel Past Presidents 



95 



1907- 


-1924 


1924- 


-1946 


1946- 


-1948 


1948- 


-1950 


1950- 


-1952 


1952- 


-1954 


1954- 


-1956 


1956- 


-1958 


1958- 


-1960 


1960- 




1960- 


-1962 


1962- 


-1964 


1964- 


-1966 


1966- 


-1968 


1968- 


-1970 


1970- 


-1972 


1972- 


-1974 


1974- 


-1976 


1976- 


-1978 


1978- 


-1980 


1980- 


-1982 


1982- 


-1984 



Emanuel Sternberger 

Sidney J. Stern, Sr. 

Milton H. Zauber 

Herbert S. Fa Ik, Sr. 

George Blankstein 

Sidney J. Stern, Jr. 

Herbert S. Falk, Sr. 

Dr. Sidney F. Lebauer 

Martin M. Bernstein 

Milton Weinstein 

Harold Needle 

Stanley Frank 

Lawrence M. Cohen 

Dr. Marshall H. Solomon 

Henry H. Isaacson 

Dr. A. Raymond Tannenbaum 

Herman Cone, Jr. 

David N . Zauber 

Arthur Bluethenthal 

Richard C. Forman 

Leonard J. Guyes 

Arthur Sohn 



96 



APPENDIX 

IV 

Beth David Synagogue Past Presidents 



1946- 


-1947 


1947- 


-1948 


1948- 


-1949 


1949- 


-1950 


1950- 


-1951 


1951- 


-1952 


1952- 


-1954 


1954- 


-1956 


1956- 


-1957 


1957- 


-1958 


1958- 


-1959 


1959- 


-1960 


1960- 


-1961 


1961- 


-1962 


1962- 


-1963 


1963- 


-1965 


1965- 


-1967 


1967- 


-1969 


1969- 


-1971 


1971- 


-1973 


1973- 


-1974 


1974- 


-1976 


1976- 


-1978 


1978- 


-1980 


1980- 


-1982 


1982- 


-1984 



I . M . Karesh 

Cyril Jacobs 

Adolph Guyes 

Sam Prago 

Max Zager/Harry Karesh 

Theodore Samet 

Harry Greenberg 

David T. Helberg 

Adolph Guyes 

Harold Scher 

Max Zager 

Sol Greenberg 

Dr . Harry Kar esh 

Dr. Ben Vatz 

William Zuckerman 

Irving Pinsker 

Howar d La v ine 

Albert Cohen 

Howar d Kaiser 

Irving Pinsker 

Dr. Julian Barker 

Mort Ershler 

Irvin Cor man 

Stanley Kaiser 

Michael Berkelhammer 

Gene Kr usch 



97 



APPENDIX 

V 

Temple Emanuel Past Sisterhood Presidents 



Mrs. Bertha Oettinger 



Mrs . 

Miss 

Mrs . 

Mrs . 

1936- 

Mrs . 

Mrs . 

Mrs . 

Mrs . 

Mrs . 

Mrs . 

1946- 

1948- 

1950- 

1952- 

1954- 

1956- 

1958 

1960 

1962 

1964 

1966 

1968 

1970 

1972 

1974 

1976 

1978 

1980 

1982 



Helen Schiffman 

Etta Spier 

Meyer Sternberger 

Ben Ginsburg 
■1946 Council Sisterhood 

J. R . Oettinger 

Fred Rypins 

Milton Zauber 

Al Lein 

Herbert S. Falk, Sr. 

Bert ram Block 
■1948 
■1950 



1952 
1954 
1956 
1958 
1960 
1962 
1964 
1966 
1968 
1970 
1972 
1974 
1976 
1978 
1980 
1982 
1984 



Mrs. Lewis Rosenberg 

Mrs. Maurice LeBauer 

Mrs. Max Miller 

Mrs. Sol Weinstein 

Mrs. Richard Steele 

Mrs. Archie Israel 

Mrs. Marshall Solomon 

Mrs. Irving Camras 

Mrs. A.J. Tannenbaum 

Mrs. Sindney J. Stern, Jr 

Mrs. Bertram Levy 

Mrs. Herbert S. Falk, Jr. 

Mrs. Howard Wainer 

Mr s . Barry Igar 

Mrs. Mel Sang 

Mrs. Ben Marks, Jr. 

Mrs. Jerone Ruskin 

Mrs. Linda Silverstein 

Mrs. Rodna Hurewitz 



APPENDIX 
VI 
ieth David Synagogue Past Sisterhood Presidents 



1946- 
1948- 
1950- 
1951- 
1953- 
1954- 
1955- 
1956- 
1958- 
I960- 
1961- 
1962- 
1964- 
1966- 
1967- 
1969- 
1971- 
1973- 
1975- 
1977- 
1979- 
1981- 
1983- 



•1948 
■1950 
■1951 
■1953 
1954 
■1955 
■1956 
1958 
1960 
1961 
1962 
1964 
1966 
1967 
1969 
1971 
■1973 
■1975 
•1977 
•1979 
•1981 
■1983 



Mr s . Max Zager 

Mrs. Harry Karesh 

Mrs. Herman Davidson 

Mrs. San Lyon 

Mrs. Harry Karesh 

Mrs. Jack Pearl man 

Mrs . Max Feiner 

Mrs. Seymour Levin 

Mrs. Saul VJeinstein 

Mrs. Thelma Wise 

Mrs. Lewis Myers 

Mrs. Meyer Leader 

Mrs. William Zuckerman 

Mrs . Ben Senie 

Mrs. Julian Kabat 

Mrs. Leo Ingber 

Mrs. Albert Cohen 

Mrs. George Hoff 

Mrs. Julian Barker 

Mrs. Linda Kaiser 

Mrs. Elaine Germain 

Mrs. Elizabeth Markowitz 

Mrs. Ellen Nelson 



99 



APPENDIX 

VII 

Temple Emanuel Brotherhood Past Presidents 

1945-1947 Milton Weinstein 

1947-1949 Alvin Hamberger 

1949-1950 Dr. Arthur Freedman 

1950-1952 Max Bloom 

1952-1954 Charles Roth 

1954-1957 Martin M. Bernstein 

1957-1959 Lawrence M. Cohen 

1959-1961 Arthur Bluethenthal 

1961-1963 David N. Zauber 

1963-1965 Richard C. Forman 

1965-1967 Dr. Howard S. Wainer 

1967-1968 Carl Scheer 

1968-1971 Joel N. Fleishman 

1971-1973 Howard T. Silverstein 

1973-1975 Paul Saperstein 

1975-1977 Arthur H. Sohn 

1977-1979 Benjamin Marks, Jr. 

1979-1981 William B. Starr 

1981-1983 Michael T. Marshall 

1983- Leonard Warner 



100 



APPENDIX 
VIII 
ieth David Synagogue Men's Club Past Presidents 



1949-1950 



1952- 
1953- 
1954- 
1955- 
1956- 
1957- 
1958- 
1959- 
1960- 
1961- 
1962- 
1963- 
1965- 
1967- 
1968- 
1969- 
1970- 
1972- 
1973- 
1974- 
1975- 
1977- 
1978- 
1979- 
1981- 
1982- 



1953 
1954 
1955 
1956 
1957 
1958 
1959 
1960 
1961 
1962 
1963 
1965 
1967 
1968 
1969 
1970 
1972 
1973 
19 74 
1975 
1977 
1978 
1979 
1981 
1982 
1984 



Bernard Robinson 

Al Rose 
Harold Scher 
Lew Myers 
Sidney Sutker 
Herman Frahia 
Joe Hirsch 
Irving Pinsker 
Howard Kaiser 
Adrian Gaynor 
Maurice Weinstein 
Albert C. Cohen 
George Hoff 
Louis Nelson 
Daniel Green 
George Hoff 
Nathan Ingber 
Mort Er shier 
Melvin Sheldon 
Ronald Pomerantz 
Max Goud smith 
Larry Tuber man 
Barry Kaiser 
Frank Vexler 
David Moff 
David Rosenstein 
Herbert Block 



101 



APPENDIX 

IX 

Greensboro Jewish Federation Past President: 



1940- 

1942- 

1944- 

1946 

1947 

1948- 

1956- 

1961- 

1968- 

1970- 

1974- 

1976- 

1978- 

1980- 

1982- 



1941 
1943 
1945 



1955 
1960 
1967 
1969 
1974 
1976 
1978 
1980 
1982 
1984 



Ceasar Cone II 
Milton Zauber 
Laura Cone 
Walter Bernstein 
Charles Pearl 
Benjamin Cone, Jr. 
Milton We in stein 
Herman Cone, Jr. 
Albert Jacobson 
Lawrence M. Cohen 
Harvey Colchamiro 
Robert Lavietes 
Arthur Cassel 1 
Joanne Bluethenthal 
Albert Jacobson 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Publ i shed Sources 

Albright, James W . Greensboro 1806-1904 Facts, Figures, 
Tradition, and Riminsences . Greensboro, North 
Carolina: Jos. J. Stone & Co., 1904. 

Alexander, Edward P. Museums in Motion . Nashville: 
American Association of State and Local History, 
1979. 

Arnett, Ethel Stephens. Greensboro, North Carolina: The 
County Seat of Guilford . Chapel Hill: University of 
North Carolina Press, 1955. 

Burcaw, G. Ellis. Introduction to Museum Work . Nashville: 
American Association of State and Local History, 
1975. 

Chiney, John L., Jr. North Carolina Government 1585-1974: 
A Narrative and Statistical History . Winston-Salem, 
North Carolina: Hunter Publishing Co., 1975. 

Conway, Mimi. Rise Gonna Rise: A Portrait of Southern 
Textile Workers . Garden City, New York: Anchor 
Press/Doubleday , 1979. 

Cyclopedia of Georgia , reprint ed . (1972). S.v. "Emanuel, 
David ." 



Davis Moshe 



The Mergence 



of 



Conservative Judaism. 



Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of 
Amer ica , 1963 . 



Dinnerstein, Leonard 



The Leo Frank Case 



New York: 



Columbia University Press, 196? 



and Palson, Mary Dale, eds. Jews in the South . 

Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1973. 

Encyclopedia Britannica , 1961 ed. S.v. "Spermaceti." 

Feingold, Henry L. Zion in Amer ica . Boston: Twayne 
Publishers, Inc., 1974. 



Fitzgerald, Marily Hicks. Museum Accreditation : 

Professional Standards . Washington, District of 
Columbia: American Association of Museums, 1973. 



102 



103 

Fowler, C. Lewis, D.D., LL . D . The Ku Klux Klan: Its Origin, 
Meaning, and Scopes of Operation . Atlanta: n.p., 
1922. 

Hardon, John A., s.j. American Judaism . Chicago: Loyola 
University Press, 1971. 

Hedgecoe, John. The Photographer's Handbook . New York: 
Alfred Knopf, 1978. 

Higham, John. Strangers in the Land . New Brunswick: 
Rutgers University Press, 1955. 

Jordan, Paula Stahls. Women of Guilford County, North 
Carolina . Greensboro, North Carolina: Greensboro 
Printing Company, 1979. 

Lewis, Ralph H. Manuel for Museums . Washington, D.C.: 
United States Government Printing Office, 1976. 

Liebman, Charles S. Aspects of the Religious Behavior of 
Amer ican Jews . New York: KTAV Publishing House, 
Inc. , 1974. 

Neal, Arminta. Help! For the Small Museum: Handbook Ideas 
and Methods . Boulder, Colorado: Druett Publishing, 
1969. 

Plant, W. Gunther. The Rise of Reform Judaism . New York: 
The World Union for Progressive Judaism, LTD., 1963. 

Rhyne, Jennings J., Ph.D. Some Southern Cotton Mill Workers 
and their Villages . Chapel Hill: University of 
North Carolina Press, 1930. 

Sachar, Howard Morley. The Course of Modern Jewish History . 
New York: Dell Publishing Company, Inc., 1977. 

Schmier, Louis, ed. Reflections of Southern Jewry . Macon, 
Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1982. 

Simpson, William Hays, Ph.D. Life in Mill Communities . 
Clinton, South Carolina: P. C. Press, 1943. 

Sklare, Marshall. Conservative Judaism . Glencoe, Illinois: 
The Free Press, 1955. 



The Standard Jewish Encyclopedia , 1958 ed. S.v. "Hadassah." 



The Standard Jewish Encyclopedia , 1958 ed. S.v 
Council of Jewish Women." 



104 

"National 



U. S. Department of Commerce. 
Eleventh Census of the 



Bureau of the Census. 
United States, 1890: 



Population , vol. 1. 

S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census, 

Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: 

Population , vol. 3. 



U. S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. United 

States Census of Population: 1960 . Vol. 1, 

Characteristics of the Population , pt . 35, North 
Carolina . 

U. S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. United 

States Census of Population: 1970 . Vol. 1, 

Characteristics of the Population , pt. 35, North 
Carolina . 



U. S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. United 

States Census of Population: 1980 . Vol. 1, 

Characteristics of the Population , pt . 35, North 
Carolina . 



Interviews 

Clark, Susan. Greensboro Jewish Day School, Greensboro, 
North Carolina. Interview, 28 February 1984. 

Falk, Louise. Greensboro, North Carolina. Telephone 
interview, 6 March 1984. 

Fruh. Alice. Blumenthal North Carolina Jewish Home, 
Clemmons, North Carolina. Interview, 28 December 
1983. 



Harris, Sherman. Greensboro Jewish Federation, Greensboro, 
North Carolina. Interview, 1 March 1984. 

Hurewitz, Rodna. Greensboro, North Carolina. Telephone 
interview, 6 March 1984. 

Klein, Min. Greensboro, North Carolina. Interview at her 
home, 10 January 1984. 

Kling, Rabbi Simcha. Louisville, Kentucky. Interview at 
his home, 27 September 1983. 



105 

Love, Fannie Susman. Greensboro, North Carolina. Interview 
at her home, 6 January 1984. 

Schiffman, Arnold Sr. Greensboro Civic Club, Greensboro, 
North Carolina. Interview, 6 January 1984. 

Shu man, Joyce. Greensboro, North Carolina. Telephone 
Interview, 6 March 1984. 

Silver, Renee. Greensboro, North Carolina. Telephone 
Interview, 6 March 1984. 

Task, Rabbi Arnold S. Temple Emanuel, Greensboro, North 
Carolina. Interview, 10 January 1984. 

Weill Bea. Greensboro, North Carolina. Interview at her 
home, 7 January 1984. 



Temple Emanuel Archives and Miscellaneous 

Berthoff, Rowland T. "Southern Attitudes Towards 
Immigration, 1865-1914." Journal of Southern History 
17 (August 1951 ) :328-360. 

Beth David Synagogue Dedication Booklet. Greensboro, North 
Carolina: n.p., 1949. 



irisker, Sarah Franklin 
Auaust 1978. 



Letter to 



ir noli 



Task, 17 



Emergency Committee on Jewish Refugees. Letter to Emanuel 
Sternberger, 26 October 1924. 

Fa Ik, Mrs. Herbert S . , Jr. Letter to the nominating 
committee for Model of the Year. Commission on 
Social Action of Reform Judaism. Union of American 
Hebrew Congregations, 31 July 1979. 

Falk, Herbert S., Jr. "Welcoming Remarks of Herbert S. 
Fa Ik, Jr., 75th Anniversary Banquet of Temple 
Emanuel." Greensboro, North Carolina, 25 April 1982. 

Greensboro Daily News 1925-1982. 

Greensboro Patriot 1876-1917. 



106 

Hoffman, Es telle. "Carolina Character: The Cone Family." 
Times Outlook , April 1982, pp. 4-9. 

National Council of Jewish Women, Greensboro Section. 
Meeting minutes. Greensboro, North Carolina, 
1916-1932. 

ORT Pamphlet. "The ORT Women of the 80 ' s , 'Eight Flames of 
Life.'" (n.p., n.d.). 

Silver, Renee. Letter to Karen Goddy , 12 March 1984. 

Temple Emanuel, Deeds of Purchase: Deed Book 450, 23 
December 1909; Deed Book 220, 7 June 1910; Deed Book 
341, 19 February 1920, Greensboro, North Carolina. 

Temple Emanuel Executive Board Meeting Minutes. Greensboro, 
North Carolina, 1908-1925. 



Temple Emanuel 75th Anniversary Booklet . Greensboro, North 
Carolina: Temple Emanuel, 1982. 



VITA 

Karen Ruth Goddy was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
and shortly afterward moved to Louisville, Kentucky. She 
graduated from J.M. Atherton High School in Louisville. She 
received her A.B. in History and an Area Certificate in 
Jewish Studies from Indiana University in 1981. 

Upon completion of undergraduate study Karen taught 
part time at the High School of Jewish Studies and the 
Temple Religious School, both in Louisville. She entered 
Wake Forest University in the Fall of 1982 to earn her M.A. 
in History with the hopes of a career in Museology or 
Historic Preservation. 



107